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Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.53.11 from The Perseus Digital Library
On the left of the road as you go from Tegea to Laconia there is an altar of Pan, and likewise one of Lycaean Zeus. The foundations, too, of sanctuaries are still there. These altars are two stades from the wall; and about seven stades farther on is a sanctuary of Artemis, surnamed Lady of the Lake, with an image of ebony. The fashion of the workmanship is what the Greeks call Aeginetan. Some ten stades farther on are the ruins of a temple of Artemis Cnaceatis.
ἐκ Τεγέας δὲ ἰόντι ἐς τὴν Λακωνικὴν ἔστι μὲν βωμὸς ἐν ἀριστερᾷ τῆς ὁδοῦ Πανός, ἔστι δὲ καὶ Λυκαίου Διός: λείπεται δὲ καὶ θεμέλια ἱερῶν. οὗτοι μὲν δή εἰσιν οἱ βωμοὶ σταδίοις δύο ἀπωτέρω τοῦ τείχους, προελθόντι δὲ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν μάλιστά που σταδίους ἑπτὰ ἱερὸν Ἀρτέμιδος ἐπίκλησιν Λιμνάτιδος καὶ ἄγαλμά ἐστιν ἐβένου ξύλου: τρόπος δὲ τῆς ἐργασίας ὁ Αἰγιναῖος καλούμενος ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων. τούτου δὲ ὅσον δέκα ἀπωτέρω σταδίοις Ἀρτέμιδος Κνακεάτιδός ἐστι ναοῦ τὰ ἐρείπια.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 4.22.7 from The Perseus Digital Library
When this was declared to all, the Arcadians themselves stoned Aristocrates and urged the Messenians to join them. They looked to Aristomenes. But he was weeping, with his eyes fixed on the ground. So the Arcadians stoned Aristocrates to death and flung him beyond their borders without burial, and set up a tablet in the precinct (temenos) of Lykaian Zeus with the words:“Truly time hath declared justice upon an unjust king and with the help of Zeus hath easily declared the betrayer of Messene. Hard it is for a man forsworn to hide from God. Hail, king Zeus, and keep Arcadia safe.
ὡς δὲ ἀπηγγέλθη ταῦτα ἐς ἅπαντας, αὐτοί τε τὸν Ἀριστοκράτην ἔβαλλον οἱ Ἀρκάδες καὶ τοῖς Μεσσηνίοις διεκελεύοντο: οἱ δὲ ἐς τὸν Ἀριστομένην ἀπέβλεπον. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐς τὴν γῆν ἀφορῶν ἔκλαιεν: τὸν δὲ Ἀριστοκράτην οἱ Ἀρκάδες καταλιθώσαντες τὸν μὲν τῶν ὅρων ἐκτὸς ἐκβάλλουσιν ἄταφον, στήλην δὲ ἀνέθεσαν ἐς τὸ τέμενος τοῦ Λυκαίου λέγουσαν πάντως ὁ χρόνος εὗρε δίκην ἀδίκῳ βασιλῆι, “εὗρε δὲ Μεσσήνης σὺν Διὶ τὸν προδότην ῥηιδίως. χαλεπὸν δὲ λαθεῖν θεὸν ἄνδρ᾽ ἐπίορκον. χαῖρε Ζεῦ βασιλεῦ, καὶ σάω Ἀρκαδίαν.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.38.7 from The Perseus Digital Library.
On the highest point of the mountain is a mound of earth, forming an altar of Zeus Lykaios, and from it most of the Peloponnesus can be seen. Before the altar on the east stand two pillars, on which there were of old gilded eagles. On this altar they sacrifice in secret to Lykaion Zeus. I was reluctant to pry into the details of the sacrifice; let them be as they are and were from the beginning.
ἔστι δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ ἄκρᾳ τῇ ἀνωτάτω τοῦ ὄρους γῆς χῶμα, Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου βωμός, καὶ ἡ Πελοπόννησος τὰ πολλά ἐστιν ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ σύνοπτος: πρὸ δὲ τοῦ βωμοῦ κίονες δύο ὡς ἐπὶ ἀνίσχοντα ἑστήκασιν ἥλιον, ἀετοὶ δὲ ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐπίχρυσοι τά γε ἔτι παλαιότερα ἐπεποίηντο. ἐπὶ τούτου τοῦ βωμοῦ τῷ Λυκαίῳ Διὶ θύουσιν ἐν ἀπορρήτῳ: πολυπραγμονῆσαι δὲ οὔ μοι τὰ ἐς τὴν θυσίαν ἡδὺ ἦν, ἐχέτω δὲ ὡς ἔχει καὶ ὡς ἔσχεν ἐξ ἀρχῆς.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.38.2 from The Perseus Digital Library.
On the left of the sanctuary of the Mistress is Mount Lykaion. Some Arcadians call it Olympus, and others Sacred Peak. On it, they say, Zeus was reared. There is a place on Mount Lykaion called Cretea, on the left of the grove of Apollo surnamed Parrhasian. The Arcadians claim that the Crete, where the Cretan story has it that Zeus was reared, was this place and not the island.
ἐν ἀριστερᾷ δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ τῆς Δεσποίνης τὸ ὄρος ἐστὶ τὸ Λύκαιον: καλοῦσι δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ Ὄλυμπον καὶ Ἱεράν γε ἕτεροι τῶν Ἀρκάδων κορυφήν. τραφῆναι δὲ τὸν Δία φασὶν ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ: καὶ χώρα τέ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ Λυκαίῳ Κρητέα καλουμένη—αὕτη δὲ ἡ Κρητέα ἐστὶν ἐξ ἀριστερᾶς Ἀπόλλωνος ἄλσους ἐπίκλησιν Παρρασίου—καὶ τὴν Κρήτην, ἔνθα ὁ Κρητῶν ἔχει λόγος τραφῆναι Δία, τὸ χωρίον τοῦτο εἶναι καὶ οὐ [διὰ] τὴν νῆσον ἀμφισβητοῦσιν οἱ Ἀρκάδες.
The following were the cities which the Arcadians were persuaded to abandon through their zeal and because of their hatred of the Lacedaemonians, in spite of the fact that these cities were their homes: Alea, Pallantium, Eutaea, Sumateium, Asea, Peraethenses, Helisson, Oresthasium, Dipaea, Lycaea; these were cities of Maenalus. Of the Eutresian cities Tricoloni, Zoetium, Charisia, Ptolederma, Cnausum, Paroreia.
From the Aegytae: Aegys, Scirtonium, Malea, Cromi, Blenina, Leuctrum. Of the Parrhasians Lycosura, Thocnia, Trapezus, Prosenses, Acacesium, Acontium, Macaria, Dasea. Of the Cynurians in Arcadia: Gortys, Theisoa by Mount Lycaeus, Lycaea, Aliphera. Of those belonging to Orchomenus: Theisoa, Methydrium, Teuthis. These were joined by Tripolis, as it is called, Callia, Dipoena, Nonacris.
The Arcadians for the most part obeyed the general resolution and assembled promptly at Megalopolis. But the people of Lycaea, Tricoloni, Lycosura and Trapezus, but no other Arcadians, repented and, being no longer ready to abandon their ancient cities, were, with the exception of the last, taken to Megalopolis by force against their will,
while the inhabitants of Trapezus departed altogether from the Peloponnesus, such of them as were left and were not immediately massacred by the exasperated Arcadians. Those who escaped with their lives sailed away to Pontus and were welcomed by the citizens of Trapezus on the Euxine as their kindred, as they bore their name and came from their mother-city. The Lycosurians, although they had disobeyed, were nevertheless spared by the Arcadians because of Demeter and the Mistress, in whose sanctuary they had taken refuge.
πόλεις δὲ τοσαίδε ἦσαν ὁπόσας ὑπό τε προθυμίας καὶ διὰ τὸ ἔχθος τὸ Λακεδαιμονίων πατρίδας σφίσιν οὔσας ἐκλιπεῖν ἐπείθοντο οἱ Ἀρκάδες, Ἀλέα Παλλάντιον Εὐταία Σουμάτειον Ἀσέα Περαιθεῖς Ἑλισσὼν Ὀρεσθάσιον Δίπαια Λύκαια: ταύτας μὲν ἐκ Μαινάλου: ἐκ δὲ Εὐτρησίων Τρικόλωνοι καὶ Ζοίτιον καὶ Χαρισία καὶ Πτολέδερμα καὶ Κναῦσον καὶ Παρώρεια
παρὰ δὲ Αἰγυτῶν <Αἴγυς> καὶ Σκιρτώνιον καὶ Μαλέα καὶ Κρῶμοι καὶ Βλένινα καὶ Λεῦκτρον: Παρρασίων <δὲ> Λυκοσουρεῖς Θωκνεῖς Τραπεζούντιοι Προσεῖς Ἀκακήσιον Ἀκόντι<ον> Μακαρία Δασέα: ἐκ δὲ Κυνουραίων τῶν ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ Γόρτυς καὶ Θεισόα ἡ πρὸς Λυκαίῳ καὶ Λυκαιᾶται καὶ Ἀλίφηρα: ἐκ δὲ τῶν συντελούντων ἐς Ὀρχομενὸν Θεισόα Μεθύδριον Τεῦθις: προσεγένετο δὲ καὶ Τρίπολις ὀνομαζομένη, Καλλία καὶ Δίποινα καὶ Νώνακρις.
τὸ μὲν δὴ ἄλλο Ἀρκαδικὸν οὔτε τι παρέλυε τοῦ κοινοῦ δόγματος καὶ συνελέγοντο ἐς τὴν Μεγάλην πόλιν σπουδῇ: Λυκαιᾶται δὲ καὶ Τρικολωνεῖς καὶ Λυκοσουρεῖς τε καὶ Τραπεζούντιοι μετεβάλοντο Ἀρκάδων μόνοι, καὶ—οὐ γὰρ συνεχώρουν ἔτι τὰ ἄστη τὰ ἀρχαῖα ἐκλιπεῖν— οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν καὶ ἄκοντες ἀνάγκῃ κατήγοντο ἐς τὴν Μεγάλην πόλιν, Τραπεζούντιοι δὲ ἐκ Πελοποννήσου
τὸ παράπαν ἐξεχώρησαν, ὅσοι γε αὐτῶν ἐλείφθησαν καὶ μὴ σφᾶς ὑπὸ τοῦ θυμοῦ παραυτίκα διεχρήσαντο οἱ Ἀρκάδες: τοὺς δὲ αὐτῶν ἀνασωθέντας ἀναπλεύσαντας ναυσὶν ἐς τὸν Πόντον συνοίκους ἐδέξαντο μητροπολίτας τ᾽ ὄντας καὶ ὁμωνύμους οἱ Τραπεζοῦντα ἔχοντες τὴν ἐν τῷ Εὐξείνῳ. Λυκοσουρεῦσι δὲ καὶ ἀπειθήσασιν ἐγένετο ὅμως παρὰ τῶν Ἀρκάδων αἰδὼς Δήμητρός τε ἕνεκα καὶ Δεσποίνης ἐλθοῦσιν <ἐς> τὸ ἱερόν.
The river Helisson divides Megalopolis just as Cnidus and Mitylene are cut in two by their straits, and in the north section, on the right as one looks down the river, the townsfolk have made their market-place. In it is an enclosure of stones and a sanctuary of Lycaean Zeus, with no entrance into it. The things inside, however, can be seen —altars of the god, two tables, two eagles, and an image of Pan made of stone.
His surname is Sinoeis, and they say that Pan was so surnamed after a nymph Sinoe, who with others of the nymphs nursed him on her own account. There is before this enclosure a bronze image of Apollo worth seeing, in height twelve feet, brought from Phigalia as a contribution to the adornment of Megalopolis.
In the marketplace of that city, behind the enclosure sacred to Lycaean Zeus, is the figure of a man carved in relief on a slab, Polybius, the son of Lycortas.
διαιροῦντος δὲ τὴν Μεγάλην πόλιν τοῦ ποταμοῦ τοῦ Ἑλισσόντος, καθὰ δὴ καὶ Κνίδον καὶ Μιτυλήνην δίχα οἱ εὔριποι νέμουσιν, ἐν μέρει τῷ πρὸς ἄρκτους, δεξιῷ δὲ κατὰ τὸ μετέωρον τοῦ ποταμοῦ, πεποίηταί σφισιν ἀγορά. περίβολος δέ ἐστιν ἐν ταύτῃ λίθων καὶ ἱερὸν Λυκαίου Διός, ἔσοδος δὲ ἐς αὐτὸ οὐκ ἔστι: τὰ γὰρ ἐντός ἐστι δὴ σύνοπτα, βωμοί τέ εἰσι τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τράπεζαι δύο καὶ ἀετοὶ ταῖς τραπέζαις ἴσοι καὶ ἄγαλμα Πανὸς λίθου πεποιημένον:
ἐπίκλησις δὲ Σινόεις ἐστὶν αὐτῷ, τήν τε ἐπίκλησιν γενέσθαι τῷ Πανὶ ἀπὸ νύμφης Σινόης λέγουσι, ταύτην δὲ σὺν ἄλλαις τῶν νυμφῶν καὶ ἰδίᾳ γενέσθαι τροφὸν τοῦ Πανός. ἔστι δὲ πρὸ τοῦ τεμένους τούτου χαλκοῦν ἄγαλμα Ἀπόλλωνος θέας ἄξιον, μέγεθος μὲν ἐς πόδας δώδεκα, ἐκομίσθη δὲ ἐκ τῆς Φιγαλέων συντέλεια ἐς κόσμον τῇ Μεγάλῃ πόλει.
Μεγαλοπολίταις δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς ἐστιν ὄπισθεν τοῦ περιβόλου τοῦ ἀνειμένου τῷ Λυκαίῳ Διὶ ἀνὴρ ἐπειργασμένος ἐπὶ στήλῃ, Πολύβιος Λυκόρτα:
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.36.3 from The Perseus Digital Library.
They allow that she gave birth to her son on some part of Mount Lycaeus, but they claim that here Cronus was deceived, and here took place the substitution of a stone for the child that is spoken of in the Greek legend. On the summit of the mountain is Rhea's Cave, into which no human beings may enter save only the women who are sacred to the goddess.
καὶ τεκεῖν μὲν συγχωροῦσιν αὐτὴν ἐν μοίρᾳ τινὶ τοῦ Λυκαίου, τὴν δὲ ἐς τὸν Κρόνον ἀπάτην καὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ παιδὸς τὴν λεγομένην ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων ἀντίδοσιν τοῦ λίθου γενέσθαι φασὶν ἐνταῦθα. ἔστι δὲ πρὸς τῇ κορυφῇ τοῦ ὄρους σπήλαιον τῆς Ῥέας, καὶ ἐς αὐτὸ ὅτι μὴ γυναιξὶ μόναις ἱεραῖς τῆς θεοῦ ἀνθρώπων γε οὐδενὶ ἐσελθεῖν ἔστι τῶν ἄλλων.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.38.5 from The Perseus Digital Library.
There is on Mount Lycaeus a sanctuary of Pan, and a grove of trees around it, with a race-course in front of which is a running-track. Of old they used to hold here the Lycaean games. Here there are also bases of statues, with now no statues on them. On one of the bases an elegiac inscription declares that the statue was a portrait of Astyanax, and that Astyanax was of the race of Arceas.
ἔστι δὲ ἐν τῷ Λυκαίῳ Πανός τε ἱερὸν καὶ περὶ αὐτὸ ἄλσος δένδρων καὶ ἱππόδρομός τε καὶ πρὸ αὐτοῦ στάδιον: τὸ δὲ ἀρχαῖον τῶν Λυκαίων ἦγον τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐνταῦθα. ἔστι δὲ αὐτόθι καὶ ἀνδριάντων βάθρα, οὐκ ἐπόντων ἔτι ἀνδριάντων: ἐλεγεῖον δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν βάθρων ἑνὶ Ἀστυάνακτός φησιν εἶναι τὴν εἰκόνα, τὸν δὲ Ἀστυάνακτα εἶναι γένος τῶν ἀπὸ Ἀρκάδος.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.38.6 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Among the marvels of Mount Lycaeus the most wonderful is this. On it is a precinct of Lycaean Zeus, into which people are not allowed to enter. If anyone takes no notice of the rule and enters, he must inevitably live no longer than a year. A legend, moreover, was current that everything alike within the precinct, whether beast or man, cast no shadow. For this reason when a beast takes refuge in the precinct, the hunter will not rush in after it, but remains outside, and though he sees the beast can behold no shadow. In Syene also just on this side of Aethiopia neither tree nor creature casts a shadow so long as the sun is in the constellation of the Crab, but the precinct on Mount Lycaeus affects shadows in the same way always and at every season.
τὸ δὲ ὄρος παρέχεται τὸ Λύκαιον καὶ ἄλλα ἐς θαῦμα καὶ μάλιστα τόδε. τέμενός ἐστιν ἐν αὐτῷ Λυκαίου Διός, ἔσοδος δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐς αὐτὸ ἀνθρώποις: ὑπεριδόντα δὲ τοῦ νόμου καὶ ἐσελθόντα ἀνάγκη πᾶσα αὐτὸν ἐνιαυτοῦ πρόσω μὴ βιῶναι. καὶ τάδε ἔτι ἐλέγετο, τὰ ἐντὸς τοῦ τεμένους γενόμενα ὁμοίως πάντα καὶ θηρία καὶ ἀνθρώπους οὐ παρέχεσθαι σκιάν: καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐς τὸ τέμενος θηρίου καταφεύγοντος οὐκ ἐθέλει οἱ συνεσπίπτειν ὁ κυνηγέτης, ἀλλὰ ὑπομένων ἐκτὸς καὶ ὁρῶν τὸ θηρίον οὐδεμίαν ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ θεᾶται σκιάν. χρόνον μὲν δὴ τὸν ἴσον ἔπεισί τε ὁ ἥλιος τὸν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καρκίνον καὶ ἐν Συήνῃ τῇ πρὸ Αἰθιοπίας οὔτε ἀπὸ δένδρων οὔτε ἀπὸ τῶν ζῴων γενέσθαι σκιὰν ἔστι: τὸ δὲ ἐν τῷ Λυκαίῳ τέμενος τὸ αὐτὸ ἐς τὰς σκιὰς ἀεί τε καὶ ἐπὶ πασῶν πέπονθε τῶν ὡρῶν.
Scholion to Euripides, Orestes, 1646
Pelasgos... bore a son, Lykaon, who founded the shrine of Lykaian Zeus in Parrhasia.
Πελασγὸς [αὐτόχθων] ὁ Ἀργεῖος ὁ τοῦ Ἀρέστορος τοῦ Ἰάσου ἐλθὼν εἰς
Ἀρκαδίαν θηριώδεις ὄντας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους εἰς τὸ ἡμερώτερον μετέβαλε καὶ
πόλιν ἔκτισεν, ἣν Παρρασίαν ὠνόμασεν. γυναῖκα δὲ ἀγαγόμενος ἐπιχωρίαν
Κυλλήνην, ἀφ’ ἧς τὸ ὄρος οὕτως καλεῖται, υἱὸν ἔσχε Λυκάονα, ὃς τὸ τοῦ
Λυκαίου Διὸς ἱερὸν εἵσατο ἐν Παρρασίᾳ καὶ παῖδα ἐσχηκὼς ἐξ Ὀρθωσίας
Νύκτιμον τὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτῷ καταλείπει, ἐφ’ οὗ ὁ κατακλυσμὸς ἐγένετο.
Herdotus, The History, 4.203 from The Perseus Digital Library
...at last they passed through Cyrene and camped on the hill of Lycaean Zeus; there they regretted not having taken the city, and tried to enter it again, but the Cyrenaeans would not let them.
ἐς ὃ διεξελθοῦσι καὶ ἱζομένοισι ἐπὶ Διὸς Λυκαίου ὄχθον μετεμέλησέ σφι οὐ σχοῦσι τὴν Κυρήνην. καὶ ἐπειρῶντο τὸ δεύτερον παριέναι ἐς αὐτήν: οἱ δὲ Κυρηναῖοι οὐ περιώρων.
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 5.16.3 from The Perseus Digital Library.
In this way, it was insisted, in time he had induced the Lacedaemonians in the nineteenth year of his exile to Lycaeum （whither he had gone when banished on suspicion of having been bribed to retreat from Attica, and had built half his house within the consecrated precinct of Zeus for fear of the Lacedaemonians）, to restore him with the same dances and sacrifices with which they had instituted their kings upon the first settlement of Lacedaemon.
χρόνῳ δὲ προτρέψαι τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους φεύγοντα αὐτὸν ἐς Λύκαιον διὰ τὴν ἐκ τῆς Ἀττικῆς ποτὲ μετὰ δώρων δοκήσεως ἀναχώρησιν, καὶ ἥμισυ τῆς οἰκίας τοῦ ἱεροῦ τότε τοῦ Διὸς οἰκοῦντα φόβῳ τῷ Λακεδαιμονίων, ἔτει ἑνὸς δέοντι εἰκοστῷ τοῖς ὁμοίοις χοροῖς καὶ θυσίαις καταγαγεῖν ὥσπερ ὅτε τὸ πρῶτον Λακεδαίμονα κτίζοντες τοὺς βασιλέας καθίσταντο.
Plutarch, Aratus, 36.1 from The Perseus Digital Library.
In the campaign of this year he was defeated by Cleomenes near Mount Lycaeum, and took to flight; and, since he lost his way in the night, he was thought to be dead, and once more a story to this effect had wide currency among the Greeks. But he escaped alive and rallied his soldiers, and then was not content to come off safely,
ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ στρατηγίᾳ περὶ τὸ Λύκαιον ἡττηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Κλεομένους ἔφυγε: καὶ πλανηθεὶς νυκτὸς ἔδοξε μὲν τεθνάναι καὶ πάλιν οὗτος ὁ λόγος κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ πολὺς ἐξεφοίτησεν εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας: ἀνασωθεὶς δὲ καὶ τοὺς στρατιώτας συναγαγών οὐκ ἠγάπησεν ἀσφαλῶς ἀπελθεῖν,
Plutarch, Cleomenes 5.1 from The Perseus Digital Library.
After this, he went to the aid of the Eleians, upon whom the Achaeans were making war, and falling upon the Achaeans near Mt. Lycaeum, as they were withdrawing, he put their entire army to panic flight, slew great numbers of them, and took many prisoners, so that even Aratus was widely reported among the Greeks to be dead.
ἐπεὶ δὲ τοῖς Ἠλείοις πολεμουμένοις ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀχαιῶν βοηθήσας, καὶ περὶ τὸ Λύκαιον ἀπιοῦσιν ἤδη τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς ἐπιβαλών, ἅπαν μὲν ἐτρέψατο καὶ διεπτόησεν αὐτῶν τὸ στράτευμα, συχνοὺς δὲ ἀνεῖλε καὶ ζῶντας ἔλαβεν, ὥστε καὶ περὶ Ἀράτου φήμην ἐκπεσεῖν εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας ὡς τεθνηκότος,
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.2.1 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Lycaon the son of Pelasgus devised the following plans, which were more clever than those of his father. He founded the city Lycosura on Mount Lycaeus, gave to Zeus the surname Lycaeus and founded the Lycaean games. I hold that the Panathenian festival was not founded before the Lycaean. The early name for the former festival was the Athenian, which was changed to the Panathenian in the time of Theseus, because it was then established by the whole Athenian people gathered together in a single city.
Λυκάων δὲ ὁ Πελασγοῦ τοσάδε εὗρεν ἢ ὁ πατήρ οἱ σοφώτερα: Λυκόσουράν τε γὰρ πόλιν ᾤκισεν ἐν τῷ ὄρει τῷ Λυκαίῳ καὶ Δία ὠνόμασε Λυκαῖον καὶ ἀγῶνα ἔθηκε Λύκαια. οὐκέτι δὲ τὰ παρ᾽ Ἀθηναίοις Παναθήναια τεθῆναι πρότερα ἀποφαίνομαι: τούτῳ γὰρ τῷ ἀγῶνι Ἀθήναια ὄνομα ἦν, Παναθήναια δὲ κληθῆναί φασιν ἐπὶ Θησέως, ὅτι ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων ἐτέθη συνειλεγμένων ἐς μίαν ἁπάντων πόλιν.
Polybius, History, 2.55 from The Perseus Digital Library.
But Cleomenes was on the alert. He saw that the Macedonians in the army of Antigonus had been sent home; and that the king and his mercenaries in Aegium were three days' march from Megalopolis; and this latter town he well knew to be difficult to guard, owing to its great extent, and the sparseness of its inhabitants; and, moreover, that it was just then being kept with even greater carelessness than usual, owing to Antigonus being in the country; and what was more important than anything else, he knew that the larger number of its men of military age had fallen at the battles of Lycaeum and Ladoceia. There happened to be residing in Megalopolis some Messenian exiles; by whose help he managed, under cover of night, to get within the walls without being detected.
Κατὰ δὲ τοὺς καιροὺς τούτους συνθεωρῶν ὁ Κλεομένης τὰς μὲν δυνάμεις διαφειμένας, τὸν δ᾽ Ἀντίγονον μετὰ τῶν μισθοφόρων ἐν Αἰγίῳ διατρίβοντα καὶ τριῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδὸν ἀφεστῶτα τῆς Μεγάλης πόλεως, τὴν δὲ πόλιν ταύτην εἰδὼς δυσφύλακτον οὖσαν διὰ τὸ μέγεθος καὶ τὴν ἐρημίαν, τότε δὲ καὶ ῥᾳθύμως τηρουμένην διὰ τὴν Ἀντιγόνου παρουσίαν, τὸ δὲ μέγιστον, ἀπολωλότας τοὺς πλείστους τῶν ἐν ταῖς ἡλικίαις ἔν τε τῇ περὶ τὸ Λύκαιον καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα τῇ περὶ Λαδόκεια μάχῃ, λαβὼν συνεργούς τινας τῶν ἐκ Μεσσήνης φυγάδων, οἳ διατρίβοντες ἐτύγχανον ἐν τῇ Μεγάλῃ πόλει, παρεισῆλθε διὰ τούτων λάθρᾳ νυκτὸς ἐντὸς τῶν τειχῶν.
Polybius, History, 4.33 from The Perseus Digital Library.
And perhaps my observation may receive some support from ancient history. For, among many other indications, it is a fact that the Messenians did set up a pillar close to the altar of Zeus Lycaeus in the time of Aristomenes, according to the evidence of Callisthenes, in which they inscribed the following verses: “A faithless king will perish soon or late!
Messene tracked him down right easily,
The traitor:—perjury must meet its fate;
Glory to Zeus, and life to Arcady!
” The point of this is, that, having lost their own country, they pray the gods to save Arcadia as their second country. And it was very natural that they should do so; for not only did the Arcadians receive them when driven from their own land, at the time of the Aristomenic war, and make them welcome to their homes and free of their civic rights; but they also passed a vote bestowing their daughters in marriage upon those of the Messenians who were of proper age; and besides all this, investigated the treason of their king Aristocrates in the battle of the Trench; and, finding him guilty, put him to death and utterly destroyed his whole family. But setting aside these ancient events, what has happened recently after the restoration of Megalopolis and Messene will be sufficient to support what I have said. For when, upon the death of Epaminondas leaving the result of the battle of Mantinea doubtful, the Lacedaemonians endeavoured to prevent the Messenians from being included. in the truce, hoping even then to get Messenia into their own hands, the Megalopolitans, and all the other Arcadians who were allied with the Messenians, made such a point of their being admitted to the benefits of the new confederacy, that they were accepted by the allies and allowed to take the oaths and share in the provisions of the peace; while the Lacedaemonians were the only Greeks excluded from the treaty. With such facts before him, could any one doubt the soundness of the suggestion I lately made?
I have said thus much for the sake of the Arcadians and Messenians themselves; that, remembering all the misfortunes which have befallen their countries at the hands of the Lacedaemonians, they may cling close to the policy of mutual affection and fidelity; and let no fear of war, or desire of peace, induce them to abandon each other in what affects the highest interests of both.
Ὁ δὲ λόγος οὗτος ἔχει μὲν ἴσως καὶ διὰ τῶν πάλαι γεγονότων πίστιν. οἱ γὰρ Μεσσήνιοι πρὸς ἄλλοις πολλοῖς καὶ παρὰ τὸν τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου βωμὸν ἀνέθεσαν στήλην ἐν τοῖς κατ᾽ Ἀριστομένην καιροῖς, καθάπερ καὶ Καλλισθένης φησί, γράψαντες τὸ γράμμα τοῦτο: πάντως ὁ χρόνος εὗρε δίκην ἀδίκῳ βασιλῆι,
εὗρε δὲ Μεσσήνη σὺν Διὶ τὸν προδότην ῥηιδίως. χαλεπὸν δὲ λαθεῖν θεὸν ἄνδρ᾽ ἐπίορκον.
χαῖρε, Ζεῦ βασιλεῦ, καὶ σάω Ἀρκαδίαν. ἐπεὶ γὰρ τῆς αὑτῶν ἐστερήθησαν, οἷον εἰ περὶ δευτέρας πατρίδος, ὥς γ᾽ ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ, τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχόμενοι σῴζειν τὴν Ἀρκαδίαν, τοῦτ᾽ ἀνέθεσαν τὸ γράμμα. καὶ τοῦτ᾽ εἰκότως ἐποίουν: οὐ γὰρ μόνον αὐτοὺς Ἀρκάδες ὑποδεξάμενοι κατὰ τὴν ἔκπτωσιν τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἰδίας ὑπὸ τὸν Ἀριστομένειον πόλεμον ὁμεστίους ἐποιήσαντο καὶ πολίτας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας ἐψηφίσαντο τοῖς ἐν ἡλικίᾳ διδόναι τῶν Μεσσηνίων, πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἀναζητήσαντες τὴν Ἀριστοκράτους τοῦ βασιλέως προδοσίαν ἐν τῇ μάχῃ τῇ καλουμένῃ περὶ Τάφρον αὐτόν τ᾽ ἀνεῖλον καὶ τὸ γένος αὐτοῦ πᾶν ἠφάνισαν. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ χωρὶς τῶν πάλαι τὰ τελευταῖα γεγονότα μετὰ τὸν Μεγάλης πόλεως καὶ Μεσσήνης συνοικισμὸν ἱκανὴν ἂν παράσχοι πίστιν τοῖς ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν εἰρημένοις. καθ᾽ οὓς γὰρ καιρούς, τῆς περὶ Μαντίνειαν μάχης τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀμφιδήριτον ἐχούσης τὴν νίκην διὰ τὸν Ἐπαμινώνδου θάνατον, ἐκώλυον Λακεδαιμόνιοι μετέχειν τῶν σπονδῶν Μεσσηνίους, ἀκμὴν σφετεριζόμενοι ταῖς ἐλπίσι τὴν Μεσσηνίαν, ἐπὶ τοσοῦτο διέσπευσαν Μεγαλοπολῖται καὶ πάντες οἱ κοινωνοῦντες Ἀρκάδων τῆς αὐτῶν συμμαχίας ὥστε Μεσσηνίους μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν συμμάχων προσδεχθῆναι καὶ μετασχεῖν τῶν ὅρκων καὶ διαλύσεων, Λακεδαιμονίους δὲ μόνους ἐκσπόνδους γενέσθαι τῶν Ἑλλήνων. ἃ τίς οὐκ ἂν τῶν ἐπιγινομένων ἐν νῷ τιθέμενος νομίσειε καλῶς εἰρῆσθαι τὰ μικρῷ πρότερον ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν δεδηλωμένα;
Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν εἰρήσθω μοι χάριν Ἀρκάδων καὶ Μεσσηνίων, ἵνα μνημονεύοντες τῶν συμβεβηκότων αὐτοῖς περὶ τὰς πατρίδας ἀτυχημάτων ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων ἀληθινῶς ἀντέχωνται τῆς πρὸς αὑτοὺς εὐνοίας καὶ πίστεως, καὶ μήτε φόβον ὑφορώμενοι μήτ᾽ εἰρήνης ἐπιθυμοῦντες ἐγκαταλείπωσιν ἀλλήλους
Polybius, History, 7.13 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Aratus seeing that Philip was now openly engaging in war with Rome, and entirely changed in his policy toward his allies, with difficulty diverted him from his intention by suggesting numerous difficulties and scruples.
I wish now to remind my readers of what, in my fifth Book, I put forward merely as a promise and unsupported statement, but which has now been confirmed by facts; in order that I may not leave any proposition of mine unproved or open to question.
In the course of my history of the Aetolian war, where I had to relate the violent proceedings of Philip in destroying the colonnades and other sacred objects at Thermus; and added that, in consideration of his youth, the blame of these measures ought not to be referred to Philip so much as to his advisers; I then remarked that the life of Aratus sufficiently proved that he would not have committed such an act of wickedness, but that such principles exactly suited Demetrius of Pharos; and I promised to make this clear from what I was next to narrate. I thereby designedly postponed the demonstration of the truth of my assertion, till I had come to the period of which I have just been speaking; that, namely, in which with the presence of Demetrius, and in the absence of Aratus, who arrived a day too late, Philip made the first step in his career of crime; and, as though from the first taste of human blood and murder and treason to his allies, was changed not into a wolf from a man, as in the Arcadian fable mentioned by Plato, but from a king into a savage tyrant. But a still more decisive proof of the sentiments of these two men is furnished by the plot against the citadel of Messene, and may help us to make up our minds which of the two were responsible for the proceedings in the Aetolian war; and, when we are satisfied on that point, it will be easy to form a judgment on the differences of their principles.
Ὅτι ὁ Ἄρατος, θεωρῶν τὸν Φίλιππον ὁμολογουμένως τόν τε πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ἀναλαμβάνοντα πόλεμον καὶ κατὰ τὴν πρὸς τοὺς συμμάχους αἵρεσιν ὁλοσχερῶς ἠλλοιωμένον, πολλὰς εἰσενεγκάμενος ἀπορίας καὶ σκήψεις μόλις ἀπετρέψατο τὸν Φίλιππον. ἡμεῖς δέ, τοῦ κατὰ τὴν πέμπτην βύβλον ἡμῖν ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ καὶ φάσει μόνον εἰρημένου νῦν δι᾽ αὐτῶν τῶν πραγμάτων τὴν πίστιν εἰληφότος, βουλόμεθα προσαναμνῆσαι τοὺς συνεφιστάνοντας τῇ πραγματείᾳ, πρὸς τὸ μηδεμίαν τῶν ἀποφάσεων ἀναπόδεικτον μηδ᾽ ἀμφισβητουμένην καταλιπεῖν. καθ᾽ ὃν γὰρ καιρὸν ἐξηγούμενοι τὸν Αἰτωλικὸν πόλεμον ἐπὶ τοῦτο τὸ μέρος τῆς διηγήσεως ἐπέστημεν, ἐν ᾧ Φίλιππον ἔφαμεν τὰς ἐν Θέρμῳ στοὰς καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν ἀναθημάτων θυμικώτερον καταφθεῖραι, καὶ δεῖν τούτων τὴν αἰτίαν οὐχ οὕτως ἐπὶ τὸν βασιλέα διὰ τὴν ἡλικίαν ὡς ἐπὶ τοὺς συνόντας αὐτῷ φίλους ἀναφέρειν, τότε περὶ μὲν Ἀράτου τὸν βίον ἐφήσαμεν ἀπολογεῖσθαι τὸ μηδὲν ἂν ποιῆσαι μοχθηρόν, Δημητρίου δὲ τοῦ Φαρίου τὴν τοιαύτην εἶναι προαίρεσιν. δῆλον δὲ τοῦτο ποιήσειν ἐπηγγειλάμεθα διὰ τῶν ἑξῆς ῥηθησομένων, εἰς τοῦτον ὑπερθέμενοι τὸν καιρὸν τὴν πίστιν τῆς προρρηθείσης ἀποφάσεως, ἐν ᾧ παρὰ μίαν ἡμέραν Δημητρίου μὲν παρόντος, ὡς ἀρτίως ὑπὲρ τῶν κατὰ Μεσσηνίους ὑπεδείξαμεν, Ἀράτου δὲ καθυστερήσαντος, ἤρξατο Φίλιππος ἅπτεσθαι τῶν μεγίστων ἀσεβημάτων. καὶ καθάπερ ἂν ἐγγευσάμενος αἵματος ἀνθρωπείου καὶ τοῦ φονεύειν καὶ παρασπονδεῖν τοὺς συμμάχους, οὐ λύκος ἐξ ἀνθρώπου κατὰ τὸν Ἀρκαδικὸν μῦθον, ὥς φησιν ὁ Πλάτων, ἀλλὰ τύραννος ἐκ βασιλέως ἀπέβη πικρός. τούτου δ᾽ ἐναργέστερον ἔτι δεῖγμα τῆς ἑκατέρου γνώμης τὸ περὶ τῆς ἄκρας συμβούλευμα πρὸς τὸ μηδὲ περὶ τῶν κατ᾽
Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 4.10 from The Perseus Digital Library.
The mountains of Arcadia are, Pholöe, with a town of the same name, Cyllene, Lycæus, upon which is the temple of Lycæan Jupiter; Mænalus, Artemisius, Parthenius, Lampeus, and Nonacris, besides eight others of no note. The rivers are the Ladon, which rises in the marshes of Pheneus, and the Erymanthus, which springs from a mountain of the same name, and flows into the Alpheus.
montes in arcadia pholoe+ cum oppido, item cyllene, lycaeus, in quo lycaei iovis delubrum, maenalus, artemisius, parthenius, lampeus, nonacris praeterque ignobiles viii. amnes ladon e paludibus phenei, erymanthus e monte eiusdem nominis in alpheum defluens.
Polyaenus, Stratagems, 4.7.9 from Attalus.
Demetrius and the Lacedaemonians encamped against each other, with Lycaeum, a mountain of Arcadia, extending itself between the two camps. The Macedonians expressed some uneasiness at their situation, unacquainted as they were with the mountain. While the north wind blew full against the enemy, Demetrius resolved to take advantage of it; and setting fire to the gate of his camp, advanced to the attack. The sparks and smoke, carried by a sharp wind amongst the Lacedaemonians, so irritated them, that the Macedonians pushing forward obtained a complete and easy victory.
About the same time the Lacedaemonians marched out with all their people to Leuctra upon their frontier, opposite to Mount Lycaeum, under the command of Agis, son of Archidamus, without any one knowing their destination, not even the cities that sent the contingents.
The sacrifices, however, for crossing the frontier not proving propitious, the Lacedaemonians returned home themselves, and sent word to the allies to be ready to march after the month ensuing, which happened to be the month of Carneus, a holy time for the Dorians.
ἐξεστράτευσαν δὲ καὶ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι κατὰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς χρόνους πανδημεὶ ἐς Λεῦκτρα τῆς ἑαυτῶν μεθορίας πρὸς τὸ Λύκαιον, Ἄγιδος τοῦ Ἀρχιδάμου βασιλέως ἡγουμένου: ᾔδει δὲ οὐδεὶς ὅποι στρατεύουσιν, οὐδὲ αἱ πόλεις ἐξ ὧν ἐπέμφθησαν.
ὡς δ᾽ αὐτοῖς τὰ διαβατήρια θυομένοις οὐ προυχώρει, αὐτοί τε ἀπῆλθον ἐπ᾽ οἴκου καὶ τοῖς ξυμμάχοις περιήγγειλαν μετὰ τὸν μέλλοντα （Καρνεῖος δ᾽ ἦν μήν, ἱερομηνία Δωριεῦσι） παρασκευάζεσθαι ὡς στρατευσομένους.
Achaeus of Eretria, (lived 484 - c. 405 BC), Azanes frag. 1ff.
And now we suppliants... ...the boughs and the gift of the gods... ...we place before your feet, the portions assigned by lot from the sacrifice to star-eyed Zeus.
Augustine, What Varro Says of the Incredible Transformations of Men, 18.17 from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
In support of this story, Varro relates others no less incredible about that most famous sorceress Circe, who changed the companions of Ulysses into beasts, and about the Arcadians, who, by lot, swam across a certain pool, and were turned into wolves there, and lived in the deserts of that region with wild beasts like themselves. But if they never fed on human flesh for nine years, they were restored to the human form on swimming back again through the same pool. Finally, he expressly names one Demaenetus, who, on tasting a boy offered up in sacrifice by the Arcadians to their god Lykaios according to their custom, was changed into a wolf, and, being restored to his proper form in the tenth year, trained himself as a pugilist, and was victorious at the Olympic games. And the same historian thinks that the epithet Lykaios was applied in Arcadia to Pan and Jupiter for no other reason than this metamorphosis of men into wolves, because it was thought it could not be wrought except by a divine power. For a wolf is called in Greek lykòs, from which the name Lykaios appears to be formed. He says also that the Roman Luperci were as it were sprung of the seed of these mysteries.
From The Latin Library.
Hoc Varro ut astruat, commemorat alia non minus incredibilia de illa maga famosissima Circe, quae socios quoque Vlixis mutauit in bestias, et de Arcadibus, qui sorte ducti tranabant quoddam stagnum atque ibi conuertebantur in lupos et cum similibus feris per illius regionis deserta uiuebant. Si autem carne non uescerentur humana, rursus post nouem annos eodem renatato stagno reformabantur in homines. Denique etiam nominatim expressit quendam Demaenetum gustasse de sacrificio, quod Arcades immolato puero deo suo Lycaeo facere solerent, et in lupum fuisse mutatum et anno decimo in figuram propriam restitutum pugilatum sese exercuisse et Olympiaco uicisse certamine. Nec idem propter aliud arbitratur historicus in Arcadia tale nomen adfictum Pani Lycaeo et Ioui Lycaeo nisi propter hanc in lupos hominum mutationem, quod eam nisi ui diuina fieri non putarent. Lupus enim Graece *lu/kos dicitur, unde Lycaei nomen apparet inflexum. Romanos etiam Lupercos ex illorum mysteriorum ueluti semine dicit exortos.
Apollodorus, Library and Epitome, 3.8.1 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Let us now return to Pelasgus, who, Acusilaus says, was a son of Zeus and Niobe, as we have supposed, but Hesiod declares him to have been a son of the soil. He had a son Lycaon by Meliboea, daughter of Ocean or, as others say, by a nymph Cyllene; and Lycaon, reigning over the Arcadians, begat by many wives fifty sons, to wit: Melaeneus, Thesprotus, Helix, Nyctimus, Peucetius, Caucon, Mecisteus, Hopleus, Macareus, Macednus, Horus, Polichus, Acontes, Evaemon, Ancyor, Archebates, Carteron, Aegaeon, Pallas, Eumon, Canethus, Prothous, Linus, Coretho, Maenalus, Teleboas, Physius, Phassus, Phthius, Lycius, Halipherus, Genetor, Bucolion, Socleus, Phineus, Eumetes, Harpaleus, Portheus, Plato, Haemo, Cynaethus, Leo, Harpalycus, Heraeeus, Titanas, Mantineus, Clitor, Stymphalus, Orchomenus, ... These exceeded all men in prideand impiety; and Zeus, desirous of putting their impiety to the proof, came to them in the likeness of a day-laborer. They offered him hospitality and having slaughtered a male child of the natives, they mixed his bowels with the sacrifices, and set them before him, at the instigation of the elder brother Maenalus. But Zeus in disgust upset thetable at the place which is still called Trapezus, and blasted Lycaon and his sons by thunderbolts, all but Nyctimus, the youngest; for Earth was quick enoughto lay hold of the right hand of Zeus and so appease his wrath.
ἐπανάγωμεν δὲ νῦν πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸν Πελασγόν, ὃν Ἀκουσίλαος μὲν Διὸς λέγει καὶ Νιόβης, καθάπερ ὑπέθεμεν, Ἡσίοδος δὲ αὐτόχθονα. τούτου καὶ τῆς Ὠκεανοῦ θυγατρὸς Μελιβοίας, ἢ καθάπερ ἄλλοι λέγουσι νύμφης Κυλλήνης, παῖς Λυκάων ἐγένετο, ὃς βασιλεύων Ἀρκάδων ἐκ πολλῶν γυναικῶν πεντήκοντα παῖδας ἐγέννησε: Μελαινέα Θεσπρωτὸν Ἕλικα Νύκτιμον Πευκέτιον, Καύκωνα Μηκιστέα Ὁπλέα Μακαρέα Μάκεδνον, Ὅρον Πόλιχον Ἀκόντην Εὐαίμονα Ἀγκύορα, Ἀρχεβάτην Καρτέρωνα Αἰγαίωνα Πάλλαντα Εὔμονα, Κάνηθον Πρόθοον Λίνον Κορέθοντα Μαίναλον, Τηλεβόαν Φύσιον Φάσσον Φθῖον Λύκιον, Ἁλίφηρον Γενέτορα Βουκολίωνα Σωκλέα Φινέα, Εὐμήτην Ἁρπαλέα Πορθέα Πλάτωνα Αἵμονα, Κύναιθον Λέοντα Ἁρπάλυκον Ἡραιέα Τιτάναν, Μαντινέα Κλείτορα Στύμφαλον Ὀρχομενόν . . . οὗτοι πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὑπερέβαλλονὑπερηφανίᾳ καὶ ἀσεβείᾳ. Ζεὺς δὲ αὐτῶν βουλόμενος τὴν ἀσέβειαν πειρᾶσαι εἰκασθεὶς ἀνδρὶ χερνήτῃ παραγίνεται. οἱ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ξένια καλέσαντες, σφάξαντες ἕνα τῶν ἐπιχωρίων παῖδα, τοῖς ἱεροῖς τὰ τούτου σπλάγχνα συναναμίξαντες παρέθεσαν, συμβουλεύσαντος τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου ἀδελφοῦ Μαινάλου. Ζεὺς δὲ <μυσαχθεὶς> τὴν μὲν τράπεζαν ἀνέτρεψεν, ἔνθα νῦν Τραπεζοῦς καλεῖται ὁ τόπος, Λυκάονα δὲ καὶ τοὺς τούτου παῖδας ἐκεραύνωσε, χωρὶς τοῦ νεωτάτου Νυκτίμου: φθάσασα γὰρ ἡ Γῆ καὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς τοῦ Διὸς ἐφαψαμένη τὴν ὀργὴν κατέπαυσε.
Plato, Minos, 315c from The Perseus Digital Library.
whereas the Carthaginians perform it as a thing they account holy and legal, and that too when some of them sacrifice even their own sons to Cronos, as I daresay you yourself have heard. And not merely is it foreign peoples who use different laws from ours, but our neighbors in Lycaea and the descendants of Athamas—you know their sacrifices, Greeks though they be. And as to ourselves too, you know, of course, from what you have heard yourself, the kind of laws we formerly used in regard to our dead, when we slaughtered sacred victims before
καὶ νόμιμον αὐτοῖς, καὶ ταῦτα ἔνιοι αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς αὑτῶν ὑεῖς τῷ Κρόνῳ, ὡς ἴσως καὶ σὺ ἀκήκοας. καὶ μὴ ὅτι βάρβαροι ἄνθρωποι ἡμῶν ἄλλοις νόμοις χρῶνται, ἀλλὰ καὶ οἱ ἐν τῇ Λυκαίᾳ οὗτοι καὶ οἱ τοῦ Ἀθάμαντος ἔκγονοι οἵας θυσίας θύουσιν Ἕλληνες ὄντες. ὥσπερ καὶ ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς οἶσθά που καὶ αὐτὸς ἀκούων οἵοις νόμοις ἐχρώμεθα πρὸ τοῦ περὶ τοὺς ἀποθανόντας, ἱερεῖά τε προσφάττοντες πρὸ τῆς ἐκφορᾶς τοῦ νεκροῦ καὶ ἐγχυτιστρίας μεταπεμπόμενοι: οἱ
Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 8.34 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Euanthes, a Grecian author of no mean reputation, informs us that the Arcadians assert that a member of the family of one Anthus is chosen by lot, and then taken to a certain lake in that district, where, after suspending his clothes on an oak, he swims across the water and goes away into the desert, where he is changed into a wolf and associates with other animals of the same species for a space of nine years. If he has kept himself from beholding a man during the whole of that time, he returns to the same lake, and, after swimming across it, resumes his original form, only with the addition of nine years in age to his former appearance. To this Fabius adds, that he takes his former clothes as well. It is really wonderful to what a length the credulity of the Greeks will go! There is no falsehood, if ever so barefaced, to which some of them cannot be found to bear testimony.
So too, Agriopas, who wrote the Olympionics, informs us that Demænetus, the Parrhasian, during a sacrifice of human victims, which the Arcadians were offering up to the Lycæan Jupiter, tasted the entrails of a boy who had been slaughtered; upon which he was turned into a wolf, but, ten years afterwards, was restored to his original shape and his calling of an athlete, and returned victorious in the pugilistic contests at the Olympic games.
Euanthes, inter auctores Graeciae non spretus, scribit Arcadas tradere ex gente Anthi cuiusdam sorte familiae lectum ad stagnum quoddam regionis eius duci vestituque in quercu suspenso tranare atque abire in deserta transfigurarique in lupum et cum ceteris eiusdem generis congregari per annos VIIII. quo in tempore si homine se abstinuerit, reverti ad idem stagnum et, cum tranaverit, effigiem recipere, ad pristinum habitum addito novem annorum senio. id quoque adicit, eandem recipere vestem.
mirum est quo procedat Graeca credulitas! nullum tam inpudens mendacium est, ut teste careat. item Agriopas, qui Olympionicas scripsit, narrat Demaenetum Parrhasium in sacrificio, quod Arcades Iovi Lycaeo humana etiamtum hostia facebant, immolati pueri exta degustasse et in lupum se convertisse, eundem X anno restitutum athleticae se exercuisse in pugilatu victoremque Olympia reversum.
Porphyry, On Abstinence from Killing Animals, 2.27.1 from tr. Gillian Clark. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Originally, then, sacrifices to the gods were made with crops. In time we came to neglect holiness, and when crops were lacking and through the dearth of lawful food people took to eating each other’s flesh, then, imploring the divine power with many prayers, they first offered the gods sacrifice from among themselves, not only consecrating to the gods whatever was finest among them, but taking in addition others of the race who were not among the best. From then until now, it is not only in Arcadia at the Lykaia and in Carthage for Kronos that everyone engages in public human sacrifice, but periodically, in remembrance of the custom, they stain altars with the blood of their own kind, even though holiness, among them, excludes from the rites by lustral water and by proclamation anyone responsible for the blood of a friend. [...]
Plato, Republic, 565d from The Perseus Digital Library.
said I, “that when a tyrant arises he sprouts from a protectorate root and from nothing else.” “Very plain.” “What, then, is the starting-point of the transformation of a protector into a tyrant? Is it not obviously when the protector's acts begin to reproduce the legend that is told of the shrine of Lycaean Zeus in Arcadia?” “What is that?” he said. “The story goes that he who tastes of the one bit of human entrails minced up with those of other victims
τοῦτο μὲν ἄρα, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, δῆλον, ὅτι, ὅτανπερ φύηται τύραννος, ἐκ προστατικῆς ῥίζης καὶ οὐκ ἄλλοθεν ἐκβλαστάνει.
καὶ μάλα δῆλον.
τίς ἀρχὴ οὖν μεταβολῆς ἐκ προστάτου ἐπὶ τύραννον; ἢ δῆλον ὅτι ἐπειδὰν ταὐτὸν ἄρξηται δρᾶν ὁ προστάτης τῷ ἐν τῷ μύθῳ ὃς περὶ τὸ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου ἱερὸν λέγεται;
ὡς ἄρα ὁ γευσάμενος τοῦ ἀνθρωπίνου σπλάγχνου, ἐν ἄλλοις ἄλλων ἱερείων ἑνὸς ἐγκατατετμημένου, ἀνάγκη δὴ
Alcman, Hymn to Lykaian Zeus, frr. 1ff (Fragments 3-7 to Dioscuri or Lykaian Zeus, Fragments 8-15 to Lykaian Zeus).
Scholiast Bern. on Vergil, Georgics 3. 89:
[Such was Cyllarus when he bent to the rein of Pollux] :...According to the lyric poet Alcman, the horses given by Neptune to Juno were named Cyllarus (or Bowlegs) and Xanthus (or Bayard), Cyllarus being given to Pollux and Xanthus to his brother.
Aelian, On Animals 12. 3:
Homer, being a poet, deserves our pardon for giving the horse Xanthus speech; and Alcman should not be blamed for imitating Homer in such matters.
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 41. 5:
[on Alcathous] : Alcman in a song to the Dioscuri tells us how they seized Aphidnae and took prisoner the mother of Theseus, but says that Theseus himself was not there.
City of the Athenians:
That is Aphidnae.
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.25.2:
[on Pephnus]: Twenty furlongs from Thalamae there is a place on the sea called Pephnus, off which there stands a pile of rock of some considerable size, known by the same name. This according to the people of Thalamae was the birthplace of the Dioscuri, and their testimony, I know, agrees with that of a song of Alcman's; but they say that though born they were not bred there, and that it was Hermes who carried them to Pellana.
Maximus Planudes, On Hermogenes Rh. Gr. Walz 5. 510:
The metrical systems of lyric poetry consist of strophe, antistrophe and epode. Of these the strophe comes first, and consists of two or more similar or dissimilar lines, as in this of Alcman, where it is composed of three dactylic lines of the same metre, and in this, where it is made up of unlike lines:
Hither, Muse, sweet clear Muse of the many tunes and everlasting song, and being a new lay for maids to sing.
Life of Aratus Buhle 2. 437:
They are unaware that Pindar, too, made use of this line, saying “Where the children of Homer also do being, to wit the proem unto Zeus,” and Alcman:
But of this song of mine the beginning shall be Zeus.
Apollonius, The Pronouns 109. 23:
This is often found among other writers; for instance, spheteron patera instead of humeteron patera, “your father” . . . and again in the same author [Hesiod] spheteron is used for sphôiteron; Alcman says:
Ye and your horses
Scholiast on Euripides, Trojan Women 210:
They call Therapnae the dwelling of the Dioscuri because they are said to be beneath the land of Therapnè when they are dead, as Alcman says.
Fragments 12 & 13
Priscian, Metres of Terence 3. 428 Keil:
Moreover Alcman in his first book has a catalectic trimester sometimes with and sometimes without an iambus in the fourth foot thus [ - frag. 9. l. 3; then - ]
...And the temple pure of towered Therapnae;
here he has a spondee in the fourth book. Similarly:
...Falleth dumb upon the shore among the tangle;
here, too, he has give the fourth foot a spondee, for the first syllable of phukessi is long.
Aristides 2. 508, On the Extemporised Addition:
You hear the Laconian, too, saying to himself and the chorus: “The Muse” etc.; note also that having at the onset asked the Muse herself to inspire him, he then seems to change about and says that the chorus who is singing the song has itself done this instead of the Muse. e.g.
The Muse crieth aloud, that Siren clear and sweet. But I had no need, it seems, to invoke her aid, seeing that you yourselves, you maidens, have inspired me with so loud a voice.
Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1. 146:
[Aetolian Leda] : It is true that Pherecydes says in his second Book that Leda and Althaea were daughters of Thestius by Laophontè daughter of Pleuron; but that Leda was daughter of Glaucus is implied by Alcman thus:
...his sons by the blessed daughter of Glaucus.
Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus H.1 (Greek only) from The Perseus Digital Library.
At libations to Zeus what else should rather be sung than the god himself, mighty for ever, king for evermore, router of the Pelagonians, dealer of justice to the sons of Heaven? How shall we sing of him - as lord of Dicte or of Lycaeum? My soul is all in doubt, since debated is his birth. O Zeus, some say that thou wert born on the hills of Ida; others, O Zeus, say in Arcadia; did these or those, O Father lie? “Cretans are ever liars.” Yea, a tomb, O Lord, for thee the Cretans builded; but thou didst not die, for thou art for ever.
In Parrhasia it was that Rheia bare thee, where was a hill sheltered with thickest brush. Thence is the place holy, and no fourfooted thing that hath need of Eileithyia nor any woman approacheth thereto, but the Apidanians call it the primeval childbed of Rheia. There when thy mother had laid thee down from her mighty lap, straightaway she sought a stream of water, wherewith she might purge her of the soilure of birth and wash thy body therein.
But mighty Ladon flowed not yet, nor Erymanthus, clearest of all rivers; waterless was all Arcadia; yet it was anon to be called well-watered. For at that time when Rhea loosed her girdle, full many a hollow oak did watery Iaon bear aloft, and many a wain did Melas carry and many a serpent above Carnion, wet though it now be, cast its lair; and a man would fare on foot over Crathis and many-pebbled Metope, athirst: while that abundant water lay beneath his feet.
And holden in distress the lady Rheia said, “Dear Earth, give birth thou also! They birthpangs are light.” So spake the goddess, and lifting her great arm aloft she smote the mountain with her staff; and it was greatly rent in twain for her and poured forth a mighty flood. Therein, O Lord, she cleansed they body; and swaddled thee, and gave thee to Neda to carry within the Cretan covert, that thou mightst be reared secretly: Neda, eldest of the nymphs who then were about her bed, earliest birth after Styx and Philyra. And no idle favour did the goddess repay her, but named that stream Neda; which, I ween, in great flood by the very city of the Cauconians, which is called Lepreion, mingles its stream with Nereus, and its primeval water do the son’s son of the Bear, Lycaon’s daughter, drink.
When the nymph, carrying thee, O Father Zeus, towards Cnosus, was leaving Thenae - for Thenae as nigh to Cnosus - even then, O God, thy navel fell away: hence that plain the Cydonians call the Plain of the Navel. But thee, O Zeus, the companions of the Cyrbantes took to their arms, even the Dictaean Meliae, and Adrasteia laid thee to rest in a cradle of gold, and thou didst suck the rich teat of the she-goat Amaltheia, and thereto eat the sweet honey-comb. For suddenly on the hills of Ida, which men call Panacra, appeared the works of the Panacrian bee. And lustily round thee danced the Curetes a war-dance, beating their armour, that Cronus might hear with his ears the din of the shield, but not thine infant noise.
Fairly didst thou wax, O heavenly Zeus, and fairly wert thou nurtured, and swiftly thou didst grow to manhood, and speedily came the down upon thy cheek. But, while yet a child, thou didst devise all the deeds of perfect stature. Wherefore thy kindred, though an earlier generation, grudged not that thou shouldst have heaven for thine appointed habitation. For they said that the lot assigned to the sons of Cronus their three several abodes. But who would draw lots for Olympos and for Hades ? save a very fool? For equal chances should one cast lots; but these are the wide world apart. When I speak fiction, be it such fiction as persuades the listener’s ear! Thou wert made sovereign of the gods not by casting of lots by the deeds of thy hands, thy might and that strength which thou hast set beside thy throne. And the most excellent of birds didst thou make the messenger of thy sings; favourable to my friends be the sings thou showest! And thou didst choose that which is most excellent among men ? not thou the skilled in ships, nor the wielder of the shield, nor the minstrel: these didst thou straightway renounce to lesser gods, other cares to others. But thou didst choose the rulers of cities themselves, beneath whose hand is the lord of the soil, the skilled in spearmanship, the oarsman, yea, all things that are: what is there that is not under the ruler’s sway? Thus, smith, we say, belong to Hephaestus; to Ares, warriors; to Artemis of the Tunic, huntsmen; to Phoebus they that know well the strains of the lyre. But from Zeus come kings; for nothing is diviner than the kings of Zeus. Wherefore thou didst choose them for thine own lot, and gavest them cities to guard. And thou didst seat thyself in the high places of the cities, watching who rule their people with crooked judgements, and who rule otherwise. And thou hast bestowed upon them wealth and prosperity abundantly; unto all, but not in equal measure. One may well judge by our Ruler, for he hath clean outstripped all others. At evening he accomplisheth what whereon he thinketh in the morning; yea, at evening the greatest things, but the lesser soon as he thinketh on them. But the others accomplish some things in a year, and some things not in one; of others, again, thou thyself dost utterly frustrate the accomplishing and thwartest their desire.
Hail! greatly hail! most high Son of Cronus, giver of good things, giver of safety. Thy works who could sing? There hath not been, there shall not be, who shall sing the works of Zeus. Hail! Father, hail again! And grant us goodness and prosperity. Without goodness wealth cannot bless men, nor goodness without prosperity. Give us goodness and weal.
Ζηνὸς ἔοι τί κεν ἄλλο παρὰ σπονδῇσιν ἀείδειν
λώιον ἢ θεὸν αὐτόν, ἀεὶ μέγαν, αἰὲν ἄνακτα,
Πηλαγόνων ἐλατῆρα, δικασπόλον οὐρανίδῃσι;
πῶς καί μιν, Δικταῖον ἀείσομεν ἠὲ Λυκαῖον;
ἐν δοιῇ μάλα θυμός, ἐπεὶ γένος ἀμφήριστον.
Ζεῦ, σὲ μὲν Ἰδαίοισιν ἐν οὔρεσί φασι γενέσθαι,
Ζεῦ, σὲ δ᾽ ἐν Ἀρκαδίῃ: πότεροι, πάτερ, ἐψεύσαντο;
‘Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται:’ καὶ γὰρ τάφον, ὦ ἄνα, σεῖο
Κρῆτες ἐτεκτήναντο: σὺ δ᾽ οὐ θάνες, ἐσσὶ γὰρ αἰεί.
ἐν δέ σε Παρρασίῃ Ῥείη τέκεν, ἧχι μάλιστα
ἔσκεν ὄρος θάμνοισι περισκεπές: ἔνθεν ὁ χῶρος
ἱερός, οὐδέ τί μιν κεχρημένον Εἰλειθυίης
ἑρπετὸν οὐδὲ γυνὴ ἐπιμίσγεται, ἀλλά ἑ Ῥείης
ὠγύγιον καλέουσι λεχώιον Ἀπιδανῆες.
ἔνθα σ᾽ ἐπεὶ μήτηρ μεγάλων ἀπεθήκατο κόλπων
αὐτίκα δίζητο ῥόον ὕδατος, ᾧ κε τόκοιο
λύματα χυτλώσαιτο, τεὸν δ᾽ ἐνὶ χρῶτα λοέσσαι.
Λάδων ἀλλ᾽ οὔπω μέγας ἔρρεεν οὐδ᾽ Ἐρύμανθος,
λευκότατος ποταμῶν, ἔτι δ᾽ ἄβροχος ἦεν ἅπασα
Ἀρκαδίη: μέλλεν δὲ μάλ᾽ εὔυδρος καλέεσθαι
αὖτις: ἐπεὶ τημόσδε, Ῥέη ὅτ᾽ ἐλύσατο μίτρην,
ἦ πολλὰς ἐφύπερθε σαρωνίδας ὑγρὸς Ἰάων
ἤειρεν, πολλὰς δὲ Μέλας ὤκχησεν ἁμάξας,
πολλὰ δὲ Καρνίωνος ἄνω διεροῦ περ ἐόντος
ἰλυοὺς ἐβάλοντο κινώπετα, νίσσετο δ᾽ ἀνὴρ
πεζὸς ὑπὲρ Κρᾶθίν τε πολύστιόν τε Μετώπην
διψαλέος: τὸ δὲ πολλὸν ὕδωρ ὑπὸ ποσσὶν ἔκειτο.
καί ῥ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ἀμηχανίης σχομένη φάτο πότνια Ῥείη:
‘Γαῖα φίλη, τέκε καὶ σύ: τεαὶ δ᾽ ὠδῖνες ἐλαφραί.’
εἶπε καὶ ἀντανύσασα θεὴ μέγαν ὑψόθι πῆχυν
πλῆξεν ὄρος σκήπτρῳ: τὸ δέ οἱ δίχα πουλὺ διέστη,
ἐκ δ᾽ ἔχεεν μέγα χεῦμα: τόθι χρόα φαιδρύνασα,
ὦνα, τεὸν σπείρωσε, Νέδῃ δέ σε δῶκε κομίζειν
κευθμὸν ἔσω Κρηταῖον, ἵνα κρύφα παιδεύοιο,
πρεσβυτάτῃ Νυμφέων αἵ μιν τότε μαιώσαντο,
πρωτίστῃ γενεῇ μετά γε Στύγα τε Φιλύρην τε.
οὐδ᾽ ἁλίην ἀπέτεισε θεὴ χάριν, ἀλλὰ τὸ χεῦμα
κεῖνο Νέδην ὀνόμηνε: τὸ μέν ποθι πουλὺ κατ᾽ αὐτὸ
Καυκώνων πτολίεθρον, ὃ Λέπρειον πεφάτισται,
συμφέρεται Νηρῆι, παλαιότατον δέ μιν ὕδωρ
υἱωνοὶ πίνουσι Λυκαονίης ἄρκτοιο.
εὖτε Θενὰς ἀπέλειπεν ἐπὶ Κνωσοῖο φέρουσα,
Ζεῦ πάτερ, ἡ Νύμφη σε Θ̔εναὶ δ᾽ ἔσαν ἐγγύθι Κνωσοὖ,
τουτάκι τοι πέσε, δαῖμον, ἄπ᾽ ὀμφαλός: ἔνθεν ἐκεῖνο
ὀμφάλιον μετέπειτα πέδον καλέουσι Κύδωνες.
Ζεῦ, σὲ δὲ Κυρβάντων ἑτάραι προσεπηχύναντο
Δικταῖαι Μελίαι, σὲ δ᾽ ἐκοίμισεν Ἀδρήστεια
λίκνῳ ἐνὶ χρυσέῳ, δὺ δ᾽ ἐθήσαο πίονα μαζὸν
αἰγὸς Ἀμαλθείης, ἐπὶ σὲ γλυκὺ κηρίον ἔβρως.
γέντο γὰρ ἐξαπιναῖα Πανακρίδος ἔργα μελίσσης
Ἰδαίοις ἐν ὄρεσσι, τά τε κλείουσι Πάνακρα.
οὖλα δὲ Κούρητές σε περὶ πρύλιν ὠρχήσαντο
τεύχεα πεπηήγοντες, ἵνα Κρόνος οὔασιν ἠχὴν
ἀσπίδος εἰσαΐοι καὶ μή σεο κουρίζοντος.
καλὰ μὲν ἠέξευ, καλὰ δ᾽ ἔτραφες, οὐράνιε Ζεῦ,
ὀξὺ δ᾽ ἀνήβησας, ταχινοὶ δέ τοι ἦλθον ἴουλοι.
ἀλλ᾽ ἔτι παιδνὸς ἐὼν ἐφράσσαο πάντα τέλεια:
τῶ τοι καὶ γνωτοὶ προτερηγενέες περ ἐόντες
οὐρανὸν οὐκ ἐμέγηραν ἔχειν ἐπιδαίσιον οἶκον.
δηναιοὶ δ᾽ οὐ πάμπαν ἀληθέες ἦσαν ἀοιδοί.
φάντο πάλον Κρονίδῃσι διάτριχα δώματα νεῖμαι:
τίς δέ κ᾽ ἐπ᾽ Οὐλύμπῳ τε καὶ Ἄιδι κλῆρον ἐρύσσαι,
ὃς μάλα μὴ νενίηλος; ἐπ᾽ ἰσαίῃ γὰρ ἔοικε
πήλασθαι: τὰ δὲ τόσσον ὅσον διὰ πλεῖστον ἔχουσι.
ψευδοίμην ἀίοντος ἅ κεν πεπίθοιεν ἀκουήν.
οὔ σε θεῶν ἐσσῆνα πάλοι θέσαν, ἔργα δὲ χειρῶν,
σή τε βίη τό τε κάρτος, ὃ καὶ πέλας εἵσαο δίφρου.
θήκαο δ᾽ οἰωνῶν μέγ᾽ ὑπείροχον ἀγγελιώτην
σῶν τεράων: ἅ τ᾽ ἐμοῖσι φίλοις ἐνδέξια φαίνοις.
εἵλεο δ᾽ αἰζηῶν ὅ τι φέρτατον: οὐ σύ γε νηῶν
ἐμπεράμους, οὐκ ἄνδρα σακέσπαλον, οὐ μὲν ἀοιδόν:
ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν μακάρεσσιν ὀλίζοσιν αὖθι παρῆκας
ἄλλα μέλειν ἑτέροισι, σὺ δ᾽ ἐξέλεο πτολιάρχους
αὐτούς, ὧν ὑπὸ χεῖρα γεωμόρος, ὧν ἴδρις αἰχμῆς,
ὧν ἐρέτης, ὧν πάντα: τί δ᾽ οὐ κρατέοντος ὑπ᾽ ἰοχύν;
αὐτίκα χαλκῆας μὲν ὑδείομεν Ἡφαίστοιο,
τευχηστὰς δ᾽ Ἄρηος, ἐπακτῆρας δὲ Χιτώνης
Ἀρτέμιδος, Φοίβου δὲ λύρης εὖ εἰδότας οἴμους:
ἐκ δὲ Διὸς βασιλῆες, ἐπεὶ Διὸς οὐδὲν ἀνάκτων
θειότερον: τῶ καί σφε τεὴν ἐκρίναο λάξιν.
δῶκας δὲ πτολίεθρα φυλασσέμεν, ἵζεο δ᾽ αὐτὸς
ἄκρῃσ᾽ ἐν πολίεσσιν, ἐπόψιος οἵ τε δίκῃσι
λαὸν ὑπὸ σκολιῇσ᾽ οἵ τ᾽ ἔμπαλιν ἰθύνουσιν:
ἐν δὲ ῥυηφενίην ἔβαλές σφισιν, ἐν δ᾽ ἅλις ὄλβον:
πᾶσι μέν, οὐ μάλα δ᾽ ἶσον. ἔοικε δὲ τεκμήρασθαι
ἡμετέρῳ μεδέοντι: περιπρὸ γὰρ εὐρὺ βέβηκεν.
ἑσπέριος κεῖνός γε τελεῖ τά κεν ἦρι νοήσῃ:
ἑσπέριος τὰ μέγιστα, τὰ μείονα δ᾽, εὖτε νοήσῃ.
οἱ δὲ τὰ μὲν πλειῶνι, τὰ δ᾽ οὐχ ἑνί, τῶν δ᾽ ἀπὸ πάμπαν
αὐτὸς ἄνην ἐκόλουσας, ἐνέκλασσας δὲ μενοινήν.
χαῖρε μέγα, Κρονίδη πανυπέρτατε, δῶτορ ἐάων,
δῶτορ ἀπημονίης. τεὰ δ᾽ ἔργματα τίς κεν ἀείδοι;
οὐ γένετ᾽, οὐκ ἔσται, τίς κεν Διὸς ἔργματ᾽ ἀείσαι.
χαῖρε πάτερ, χαῖρ᾽ αὖθι: δίδου δ᾽ ἀρετήν τ᾽ ἄφενός τε.
οὔτ᾽ ἀρετῆς ἄτερ ὄλβος ἐπίσταται ἄνδρας ἀέξειν
οὔτ᾽ ἀρετὴ ἀφένοιο: δίδου δ᾽ ἀρετήν τε καὶ ὄλβον.
Himerius, Orations, 5.3 (delivered in the winter of AD 361-362 at Thessalonica)
And Alcman, the one who blended the Dorian lyre with Lydian songs, happened through Sparta, bringing hymns to Lykaian Zeus; but he did not pass Sparta before he saluted both that city and the Dioskouri.
Plutarch,Antony 12.1 from The Perseus Digital Library.
For at the festival of the Lycaea, which the Romans call Lupercalia,...
ἦν μὲν γὰρ ἡ τῶν Λυκαίων ἑορτὴ Ῥωμαίοις, ἣν Λουπερκάλια καλοῦσι,
Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 43.6ff from Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum.
After him, third in descent, they say that Faunus was king, in whose time Evander came into Italy from Pallanteum, a city of Arcadia, accompanied with a small band of his countrymen, to whom Faunus kindly gave land, and the mountain which he afterwards called Palatium. At the foot of this mountain he built a temple to the Lycaean god, whom the Greeks call Pan, and the Romans Lupercus, the naked statue of the deity being covered with a goat-skin, in which dress the priests now run up and down during the Lupercalia at Rome.
Post hunc tertio loco regnasse Faunum ferunt, sub quo Euander ab Arcadiae urbe Pallanteo in Italiam cum mediocri turba popularium uenit, cui Faunus et agros et montem, quem ille postea Palatium appellauit, benigne adsignauit. 7 In huius radicibus templum Lycaeo, quem Graeci Pana, Romani Lupercum appellant, constituit ; ipsum dei simulacrum nudum caprina pelle amictum est, quo hahitu nunc Romae Lupercalibus decurritur.
Livy, History of Rome, 1.5 from The Perseus Digital Library.
It is said that the festival of the Lupercalia, which is still observed, was even in those days celebrated on the Palatine hill. This hill was originally called Pallantium from a city of the same name in Arcadia; the name was afterwards changed to Palatium. Evander, an Arcadian, had held that territory many ages before, and had introduced an annual festival from Arcadia in which young men ran about naked for sport and wantonness, in honour of the Lycaean Pan, whom the Romans afterwards called Inuus. The existence of this festival was widely recognised, and it was while the two brothers were engaged in it that the brigands, enraged at losing their plunder, ambushed them. Romulus successfully defended himself, but Remus was taken prisoner and brought before Amulius, his captors impudently accusing him of their own crimes. The principal charge brought against them was that of invading Numitor's lands with a body of young men whom they had got together, and carrying off plunder as though in regular warfare. Remus accordingly was handed over to Numitor for punishment.
iam tum in Palatio [monte] Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt, et a Pallanteo, urbe Arcadica, Pallantium, dein Palatium montem appellatum; ibi Euandrum, qui ex eo genere Arcadum multis ante tempestatibus tenuerit loca, sollemne allatum ex Arcadia instituisse ut nudi iuuenes Lycaeum Pana uenerantes per lusum atque lasciuiam currerent, quem Romani deinde uocarunt Inuum. huic deditis ludicro cum sollemne notum esset insidiatos ob iram praedae amissae latrones, cum Romulus ui se defendisset, Remum cepisse, captum regi Amulio tradidisse, ultro accusantes. crimini maxime dabant in Numitoris agros ab iis impetum fieri; inde eos collecta iuuenum manu hostilem in modum praedas agere. sic Numitori ad supplicium Remus deditur.
There was added to these causes of offence his insult to the tribunes. It was, namely, the festival of the Lupercalia, of which many write that it was anciently celebrated by shepherds, and has also some connection with the Arcadian Lycaea.
At this time many of the noble youths and of the magistrates run up and down through the city naked, for sport and laughter striking those they meet with shaggy thongs. And many women of rank also purposely get in their way, and like children at school present their hands to be struck, believing that the pregnant will thus be helped to an easy delivery, and the barren to pregnancy.
ἐπιγίνεται τούτοις τοῖς προσκρούσμασιν ὁ τῶν δημάρχων προπηλακισμός. ἦν μὲν γὰρ ἡ τῶν Λουπερκαλίων ἑορτή, περὶ ἧς πολλοὶ γράφουσιν ὡς ποιμένων τὸ παλαιὸν εἴη, καί τι καί προσήκει τοῖς Ἀρκαδικοῖς Λυκαίοις.
τῶν δ᾽ εὐγενῶν νεανίσκων καί ἀρχόντων πολλοὶ διαθέουσιν ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν γυμνοί, σκύτεσι λασίοις τοὺς ἐμποδὼν ἐπὶ παιδιᾷ καί γέλωτι παίοντες πολλαὶ δὲ καί τῶν ἐν τέλει γυναικῶν ἐπίτηδες ὑπαντῶσαι παρέχουσιν ὥσπερ ἐν διδασκάλου τὼ χεῖρε ταῖς πληγαῖς, πεπεισμέναι πρὸς εὐτοκίαν κυούσαις, ἀγόνοις δὲ πρὸς κύησιν ἀγαθὸν εἶναι.
Plutarch, Quaestiones Romanae, 68 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Why do the Luperci sacrifice a dog? The Luperci are men who race through the city on the Lupercalia, lightly clad in loin-cloths, striking those whom they meet with a strip of leather.
Is it because this performance constitutes a rite of purification of the city? In fact they call this month February, and indeed this very day, februata; and to strike with a kind of leather thong they call februare, the word meaning ‘to purify.’ Nearly all the Greeks used a dog as the sacrificial victim for ceremonies of purification ; and some, at least, make use of it even to this day. They bring forth for Hecatê puppies along with the other materials for purification, and rub round about with puppies such persons as are in need of cleansing, and this kind of purification they call periskylakismos (‘puppifrication’).
Or is it that lupus means ‘wolf’ and the Lupercalia is the Wolf Festival, and that the dog is hostile to the wolf, and for this reason is sacrificed at the Wolf Festival?
Or is it that the dogs bark at the Luperci and annoy them as they race about in the city?
Or is it that the sacrifice is made to Pan, and a dog is something dear to Pan because of his herds of goats?
‘διὰ τί κύνα θύουσιν οἱ Λούπερκοι; Λούπερκοι δ᾽ εἰσὶν οἱ τοῖς Λουπερκαλίοις γυμνοὶ διαθέοντες ἐν περιζώμασι καὶ καθικνούμενοι σκύτει τῶν ἀπαντώντων.’
πότερον ὅτι καθαρμός ἐστι τῆς πόλεως τὰ δρώμενα; καὶ γὰρ τὸν μῆνα ‘Φεβρουάριον’ καλοῦσι καὶ νὴ Δία τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην ‘φεβράτην,'’ καὶ ‘φεβρᾶρε’ τό τινι σκυτῶν εἴδει καθικνεῖσθαι, τοῦ ῥήματος τὸ καθαίρειν σημαίνοντος: τῷ δὲ κυνὶ πάντες ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν Ἕλληνες ἐχρῶντο καὶ χρῶνταί γε μέχρι νῦν ἔνιοι σφαγίῳ πρὸς τοὺς καθαρμούς: καὶ τῇ Ἑκάτῃ σκυλάκια μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων καθαρσίων ἐκφέρουσι καὶ περιμάττουσι σκυλακίοις τοὺς ἁγνισμοῦ δεομένους, περισκυλακισμὸν τὸ τοιοῦτον γένος τοῦ καθαρμοῦ καλοῦντες.
ἢ λύκος μὲν ὁ λοῦπός ἐστι καὶ Λύκαια τὰ Λουπερκάλια, λύκῳ δὲ κύων πολέμιος καὶ διὰ τοῦτο θύεται τοῖς Λυκαίοις;
ἢ ὅτι τοὺς Λουπέρκους ὑλακτοῦσι καὶ παραλυποῦσιν οἱ κύνες ἐν τῇ πόλει διαθέοντας;
ἢ Πανὶ μὲν ἡ θυσία γίγνεται, Πανὶ δὲ κύων προσφιλὲς διὰ τὰ αἰπόλια;
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.32.3-5 from LacusCurtius.
As for the Arcadians, when they had joined in a single settlement at the foot of the hill [the Palatine], they proceeded to adorn their town with all the buildings to which they had been accustomed at home and to erect temples. And first they built a temple to the Lycaean Pan by the direction of Themis (for to the Arcadians Pan is the most ancient and the most honoured of all the gods), when they had found a suitable site for the purpose. This place the Romans call the Lupercal, but we should call it Lykaion or “Lycaeum.” Now, it is true, since the district about the sacred precinct has been united with the city, it has become difficult to make out by conjecture the ancient nature of the place. Nevertheless, at first, we are told, there was a large cave under the hill overarched by a dense wood; deep springs issued from beneath the rocks, and the glen adjoining the cliffs was shaded by thick and lofty trees. In this place they raised an altar to the god and performed their traditional sacrifice, which the Romans have continued to offer up to this day in the month of February, after the winter solstice, without altering anything in the rites then performed. The manner of this sacrifice will be related later. Upon the summit of the hill they set apart the precinct of Victory and instituted sacrifices to her also, lasting throughout the year, which the Romans performed even in my time.
Οἱ δ´ οὖν Ἀρκάδες ὑπὸ τῷ λόφῳ συνοικισθέντες τά τε ἄλλα διεκόσμουν τὸ κτίσμα τοῖς οἴκοθεν νομίμοις χρώμενοι καὶ ἱερὰ ἱδρύονται, πρῶτον μὲν τῷ Λυκαίῳ Πανὶ τῆς Θέμιδος ἐξηγουμένης (Ἀρκάσι γὰρ θεῶν ἀρχαιότατός τε καὶ τιμιώτατος ὁ Πάν) χωρίον ἐξευρόντες ἐπιτήδειον, ὃ καλοῦσι Ῥωμαῖοι Λουπερκάλιον, ἡμεῖς δ´ ἂν εἴποιμεν Λύκαιον.
Νῦν μὲν οὖν συμπεπολισμένων τῷ τεμένει τῶν πέριξ χωρίων δυσείκαστος γέγονεν ἡ παλαιὰ τοῦ τόπου φύσις, ἦν δὲ τὸ ἀρχαῖον ὡς λέγεται σπήλαιον ὑπὸ τῷ λόφῳ μέγα, δρυμῷ λασίῳ κατηρεφές, καὶ κρηνίδες ὑπὸ ταῖς πέτραις ἐμβύθιοι, ἥ τε προσεχὴς τῷ κρημνῷ νάπη πυκνοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις δένδρεσιν ἐπίσκιος.
Ἔνθα βωμὸν ἱδρυσάμενοι τῷ θεῷ τὴν πάτριον θυσίαν ἐπετέλεσαν, ἣν μέχρι τοῦ καθ´ ἡμᾶς χρόνου Ῥωμαῖοι θύουσιν ἐν μηνὶ Φεβρουαρίῳ μετὰ τὰς χειμερίους τροπάς, οὐδὲν τῶν τότε γενομένων μετακινοῦντες· ὁ δὲ τρόπος τῆς θυσίας ἐν τοῖς ἔπειτα λεχθήσεται. Ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ κορυφῇ τοῦ λόφου τὸ τῆς Νίκης τέμενος ἐξελόντες θυσίας καὶ ταύτῃ κατεστήσαντο διετησίους, ἃς καὶ ἐπ´ ἐμοῦ Ῥωμαῖοι ἔθυον.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.80 from LacusCurtius.
But Aelius Tubero, a shrewd man and careful in collecting the historical data, writes that Numitor’s people, knowing beforehand that the youths were going to celebrate in honour of Pan the Lupercalia, the Arcadian festival as instituted by Evander, set an ambush for that moment in the celebration when the youths living near the Palatine were, after offering sacrifice, to proceed from the Lupercal and run round the village naked, their loins girt with the skins of the victims just sacrificed. This ceremony signified a sort of traditional purification of the villagers, and is still performed even to this day.
Ὡς δὲ Τουβέρων Αἴλιος δεινὸς ἀνὴρ καὶ περὶ τὴν συναγωγὴν τῆς ἱστορίας ἐπιμελὴς γράφει, προειδότες οἱ τοῦ Νεμέτορος θύσοντας τὰ Λύκαια τοὺς νεανίσκους τῷ Πανὶ τὴν Ἀρκαδικὴν ὡς Εὔανδρος κατεστήσατο θυσίαν ἐνήδρευσαν τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον τῆς ἱερουργίας, ἡνίκα χρῆν τοὺς περὶ τὸ Παλλάντιον οἰκοῦντας τῶν νέων ἐκ τοῦ Λυκαίου τεθυκότας περιελθεῖν δρόμῳ τὴν κώμην γυμνοὺς ὑπεζωσμένους τὴν αἰδῶ ταῖς δοραῖς τῶν νεοθύτων. Τοῦτο δὲ καθαρμόν τινα τῶν κωμητῶν πάτριον ἐδύνατο, ὡς καὶ νῦν ἔτι δρᾶται.
...As for the Lupercalia, judging by the time of its celebration, it would seem to be a feast of purification, for it is observed on the inauspicious days of the month of February, which name can be interpreted to mean purification, and the very day of the feast was anciently called Febrata. But the name of the festival has the meaning of the Greek ‘Lycaea,’ or feast of wolves, which makes it seem of great antiquity and derived from the Arcadians in the following of Evander.
Indeed, this meaning of the name is commonly accepted; for it can be connected with the she-wolf of story.
τὰ δὲ Λουπερκάλια τῷ μὲν χρόνῳ δόξειεν ἂν εἶναι καθάρσια: δρᾶται γὰρ ἐν ἡμέραις ἀποφράσι τοῦ Φεβρουαρίου μηνός, ὃν καθάρσιον ἄν τις ἑρμηνεύσειε, καὶ τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην τὸ παλαιὸν ἐκάλουν Φεβράτην. τοὔνομα δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς ἑλληνιστὶ σημαίνει Λύκαια, καὶ δοκεῖ διὰ τοῦτο παμπάλαιος ἀπ᾽ Ἀρκάδων εἶναι τῶν περὶ Εὔανδρον.
ἀλλὰ τοῦτο μὲν κοινόν ἐστι: δύναται γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς λυκαίνης γεγονέναι τοὔνομα.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 7.57 from The Perseus Digital Library.
Lycaon first instituted gymnastic games, in Arcadia; Acastus funereal games,at Iolcos; and, after him, Theseus instituted them at the Isthmus. Hercules first instituted the athletic contests at Olympia.
ludos gymnicos in Arcadia Lycaon, funebres Acastus in Iolco, post eum Theseus in Isthmo, Hercules Olympiae;
Pindar, Nemean Odes, 10.45ff from The Perseus Digital Library.
But it is impossible to give a full reckoning of their [Theaios' maternal ancestors'] countless prizes of bronze for it would require long leisure to number them which Cleitor and Tegea and the upland cities of the Achaeans and Mount Lykaion set by the racecourse of Zeus for men to win with the strength of their feet and hands.
ἀλλὰ χαλκὸν μυρίον οὐ δυνατὸν
ἐξελέγχειν: μακροτέρας γὰρ ἀριθμῆσαι σχολᾶς:
ὅντε Κλείτωρ καὶ Τεγέα καὶ Ἀχαιῶν ὑψίβατοι πόλιες
καὶ Λύκαιον πὰρ Διὸς θῆκε δρόμῳ, σὺν ποδῶν χειρῶν τε νικᾶσαι σθένει.
Pindar, Olympian Odes, 7.80ff from The Perseus Digital Library.
With the flowers from these Diagoras has had himself crowned twice, and at the renowned Isthmus four times, in his good fortune, and again and again at Nemea and in rocky Athens; and the prizes of the bronze shield in Argos and the works of art in Arcadia and Thebes are familiar with him, and the duly ordered contests of the Boeotians, and Pellana and Aegina, where he was six times victor.
τῶν ἄνθεσι Διαγόρας
ἐστεφανώσατο δίς, κλεινᾷ τ᾽ ἐν Ἰσθμῷ τετράκις εὐτυχέων,
Νεμέᾳ τ᾽ ἄλλαν ἐπ᾽ ἄλλα, καὶ κρανααῖς ἐν Ἀθάναις.
ὅ τ᾽ ἐν Ἄργει χαλκὸς ἔγνω νιν, τά τ᾽ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ
ἔργα καὶ Θήβαις, ἀγῶνές τ᾽ ἔννομοι
Πέλλανά τ᾽ Αἴγινά τε νικῶνθ᾽ ἑξάκις.
Pindar, Olympian Odes, 9.95ff from The Perseus Digital Library.
Again, among the Parrhasian people he was marvellous to look at, at the festival of Lycaean Zeus, and when at Pellana he carried off as his prize a warm remedy against chilly winds. The tomb of Iolaus bears witness for him, and also Eleusis by the sea, for his splendid achievements.
τὰ δὲ Παρρασίῳ στρατῷ
θαυμαστὸς ἐὼν φάνη Ζηνὸς ἀμφὶ πανάγυριν Λυκαίου,
καὶ ψυχρᾶν ὁπότ᾽ εὐδιανὸν φάρμακον αὐρᾶν
Πελλάνᾳ φέρε: σύνδικος δ᾽ αὐτῷ Ἰολάου
τύμβος εἰναλία τ᾽ Ἐλευσὶς ἀγλαΐαισιν.
Pindar, Olympian Odes, 13.105-111 from The Perseus Digital Library.
If the good fortune of their family continues, we shall leave this to Zeus and Enyalius to accomplish. They won six times beneath the brow of Parnassus; and all their victories in Argos and in Thebes, and all that shall be witnessed by the royal Lycaean altar that rules over the Arcadians, and by Pellana, and Sicyon, and Megara, the beautifully enclosed precinct of the Aeacidae, and Eleusis and splendid Marathon, and the wealthy and beautiful cities beneath the high crest of Aetna, and Euboea—you may search through all Greece, and you will find that their victories are more than the eye can see.
εἰ δὲ δαίμων γενέθλιος ἕρποι,
δι᾽ τοῦτ᾽ Ἐνυαλίῳ τ᾽ ἐκδώσομεν πράσσειν. τὰ δ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ὀφρύϊ Παρνασσίᾳ
ἕξ: Ἄργεΐ θ᾽ ὅσσα καὶ ἐν Θήβαις, ὅσα τ᾽ Ἀρκάσιν ἀνάσσων
μαρτυρήσει Λυκαίου βωμὸς ἄναξ,
Πέλλανά τε καὶ Σικυὼν καὶ Μέγαρ᾽ Αἰακιδᾶν τ᾽ εὐερκὲς ἄλσος,
ἅ τ᾽ Ἐλευσὶς καὶ λιπαρὰ Μαραθών,
ταί θ᾽ ὑπ᾽ Αἴτνας ὑψιλόφου καλλίπλουτοι
πόλιες, ἅ τ᾽ Εὔβοια: καὶ πᾶσαν κατὰ
Ἑλλάδ᾽ εὑρήσεις ἐρευνῶν μάσσον᾽ ἢ ὡς ἰδέμεν.
Polemon Periegeta, frag. 26, (FHG III, 123; scholion to Pindar, Olympian Odes VIII, 153).
Polemon, in his On the Heracleids at Thebes, says that bronze was the prize at the Lykaia in Arcadia, as in common the deeds and the bronze one must receive, which Pindar says; and the bronze in Argos made known the deeds in Arkadia and at Thebes. For in these places are given bronze tripods. And many games are held in Arkadia: the Lykaia, Koreia, Aleaia, and Hermaia. And at Thebes the Herakleia. But these are called also the Iolaeia... Thus Aristonokos.
[Lycophron], Alexandra, 478-485 (ca. 197/6 BC)
The second who comes to the island is a country-man and a landsman, feeding on simple food, one of the sons of the oak [the Arcadians], the wolf-shaped devourers of the flesh of Nyctimus, a people that were before the moon, and who in the height of winter heated in the ashes of the fire their staple of oaken bread; he shall dig for copper and from the trench drag the soil, mining with mattock every pit. His father the tusk of Oeta slew, crushing his body in the regions of the belly. In sorrow, wretched man, he learnt the truth of the saying that the all-devising fate of men rolls many a thing betwixt the life and the draught of the cup. That same tusk, all flecked with glistening foam, when he had fallen took vengeance on his slayer, smiting with unescapable blow the dancer's ankle-bone.
Rufus Festus Avienus, Aratea, (Latin paraphrase of Aratus’ Phaenomena), 105-107 (4th century AD):
The omnipotent father in the vale of Lykaion carried these [bears], formerly accustomed to rough hunts, into the aether and immortalized them with the seized flower of their mother.
has pater omnipotens in valle Lycaei
adsuetas duris quondam venatibus aethrae
intulit et rapto genetricis flore sacravit.
C. Julius Solinus, Collection of Memorable Things, 11-12 (written 3rd cent. AD)
Pallanteum Arcadiae quod Palatio nostro per Euandrum Arcada appellationem dederit, sat est admonere. In qua montes Cyllene et Lycaeus, Maenalus etiam diis alumnis inclaruerunt; inter quos nec Erymanthus in obscuro est. Inter flumina Erymanthus Erymantho monte demissus et Ladon ille Herculis pugna, hic Pane clara sunt.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, from The Perseus Digital Library.
[6.8.2] As to the boxer, by name Damarchos, an Arcadian of Parrhasia, I cannot believe (except, of course, his Olympic victory) what romancers say about him, how he changed his shape into that of a wolf at the sacrifice of Lykaion (Wolf) Zeus, and how nine years after he became a man again. Nor do I think that the Arcadians either record this of him, otherwise it would have been recorded as well in the inscription at Olympia, which runs:--
>>This statue was dedicated by Damarchus, son of Dinytas,
Parrhasian by birth from Arcadia.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, from The Perseus Digital Library.
[8.2.6] All through the ages, many events that have occurred in the past, and even some that occur to-day, have been generally discredited because of the lies built up on a foundation of fact. It is said, for instance, that ever since the time of Lycaon a man has changed into a wolf at the sacrifice to Lykaion Zeus, but that the change is not for life; if, when he is a wolf, he abstains from human flesh, after nine years he becomes a man again, but if he tastes human flesh he remains a beast for ever.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, from The Perseus Digital Library.
[8.38.3] The nymphs, by whom they say that Zeus was reared, they call Theisoa, Neda and Hagno. After Theisoa was named a city in Parrhasia; Theisoa to-day is a village in the district of Megalopolis. From Neda the river Neda takes its name; from Hagno a spring on Mount Lykaion, which like the Danube flows with an equal volume of water in winter just as in the season of summer.  Should a drought persist for a long time, and the seeds in the earth and the trees wither, then the priest of Lykaion Zeus, after praying towards the water and making the usual sacrifices, lowers an oak branch to the surface of the spring, not letting it sink deep. When the water has been stirred up there rises a vapor, like mist; after a time the mist becomes cloud, gathers to itself other clouds, and makes rain fall on the land of the Arcadians.
Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 13.286-299 (ca. AD 400)
He was followed by the vagabond acornfed Arcadians under arms, those that held Lasion, and the fine glades of Lycaios, and rocky Stymphalos, and Rhipe famous town; Stratia and Mantinea and Enispe, and woodland Parrhasia, where is still to be found the place untrodden in which primeval goddess Rheia was brought to bed; the region of Pheneos, and Orchomenos rich in sheep, only begetter of the dance, seat of Apidaneans. There were there also those of Arcadia, city of Arcas son of Callisto and Zeus, whose father fixed him in the starry firmament and called him Boötes Hailbringer. Such was the host which Aristaios armed with the Arcadian lance, and led sheepdogs to battle with warring men.
Euripides, Electra, 1274 (ca. 413 BC)
[The Dioskouroi speaking to Orestes:]
“whilst thou must settle in a city of Arcadia on the
banks of the river Alpheus near the shrine of Lycaean Apollo, and
the city shall be called after thy name.” (tr. E.P. Coleridge, 1891)
“You must found an Arcadian city beside the streams of Alpheus near the sacred enclosure to Lycaean Apollo; and the city will be called after your name.” (tr. E.P. Coleridge, 1938?)
“You must settle an Arcadian city
by Alpheus' streams, near the sacred shrine
of Lycaean Apollo, and that city
will get its name from you.” (tr. Ian Johnston)
“You must live in an Arcadian city, near the stream of Alpheios and near the temple of Zeus the Lyceus. The city will be named after you: Oresteion.” (tr. G. Theodoridis, 2006)
“But it is necessary to found a city of Arcadians beside the streams of Alpheus near the Lykaian enclosure [sekoma]. And the city will be called by your name.” (tr. D. Diffendale 2007)
Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, 8.9.5 (ca. AD 630)
And it is also said about the sacrifice which the Arcadians offered to their Lykaian god, that whosoever partook of them, they were changed into the forms of beasts.
Legitur et de sacrificio quod Arcades deo suo Lycaeo immolabant, ex quo quicumque sumerent in bestiarum formas convertebantur.
[Hyginus], Fabulae, 176 (later 2nd cent. AD?)
Jove is said to have come as guest to Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, and to have seduced his daughter Callisto. From them Arcas was born, who named the land from his own name. But the sons of Lycaon wanted to test Jove, to see whether he was a god or not; they mixed human flesh with the other meat, and set it before him at a banquet. When he realized it, in anger he overturned the table, and slew the sons of Lycaon with a thunderolt. At that place Arcas later fortified a town which he called Trapezus. Jupiter changed their father into the form of a wolf.
Ad Lycaonem Pelasgi filium Iovis in hospitium venisse dicitur et filiam eius Callisto compressisse; ex quo natus est Arcas, qui ex suo nomine terrae nomen indidit. sed Lycaonis filii Iovem tentare voluerunt, deusne esset, [et] carnem humanam cum cetera carne commiscuerunt idque in epulo ei apposuerunt. qui postquam sensit iratus mensam evertit, Lycaonis filios fulmine necavit. eo loco postea Arcas oppidum communivit quod Trapezous nominatur. patrem Iuppiter in lyci figuram mutavit.
[Hyginus], Fabulae, 177 (later 2nd cent. AD?)
Those Who First Built Temples to the Gods
Pelasgus, son of Triopas, first made a temple to Olympian Jove in Arcadia. Thessalus raised the temple [which is in Macedonia] of Jove of Dodona in the land of the Molossi. Eleuther first set up a statue to Father Liber and showed how it was to be tended. Phoroneus, son of Inachus, first made a temple to Juno in Argos. Otrera, an Amazon, wife of Mars, first founded the temple of Diana at Ephesus, later restored by King (?). Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, built a temple to Mercury of Cyllene in Arcadia. Pierus…
Qui prima templa deorum constituerunt.
Aedem Iovi Olympio primum fecit Pelasgus Triopae filius in Arcadia. Thessalus templum [quod est in Macedonia] Iovis Dodonaei in terra Molossorum. Eleuther primus simulacrum Liberi patris consistuit et quemadmodum coli deberet ostendit. Phoroneus Inachi filius templum Argis Iunoni primus fecit. Otrera Amazon Martis coniunx templum Dianae Ephesi prima fecit, quod postea a rege restituerunt. Lycaon Pelasgi filius templum Mercurio Cyllenio in Arcadia fecit. Pierus…
Polybius, Histories, from The Perseus Digital Library.
[16.12.7] For instance, to say that certain bodies when placed in full light cast no shadow argues a state of quite deplorable folly. But Theopompus has done this; for he says that those who enter the holy precinct (temenos) of Zeus in Arcadia cast no shadow, which is on a par with the statements to which I have just referred.
P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses, from The Perseus Digital Library.
When, from his throne
supreme, the Son of Saturn viewed their deeds,
he deeply groaned: and calling to his mind
the loathsome feast Lycaon had prepared,
a recent deed not common to report,
his soul conceived great anger worthy Jove
and he convened a council. No delay
detained the chosen Gods.
When skies are clear
a path is well defined on high, which men,
because so white, have named the Milky Way.
It makes a passage for the deities
and leads to mansions of the Thunder God,
to Jove's imperial home. On either side
of its wide way the noble Gods are seen,
inferior Gods in other parts abide,
but there the potent and renowned of Heaven
have fixed their homes.--It is a glorious place,
our most audacious verse might designate
the“Palace of High Heaven.” When the Gods
were seated, therefore, in its marble halls
the King of all above the throng sat high,
and leaning on his ivory scepter, thrice,
and once again he shook his awful locks,
wherewith he moved the earth, and seas and stars,--
and thus indignantly began to speak;
“The time when serpent footed giants strove
to fix their hundred arms on captive Heaven,
not more than this event could cause alarm
for my dominion of the universe.
Although it was a savage enemy,
yet warred we with a single source derived
of one. Now must I utterly destroy
this mortal race wherever Nereus roars
around the world. Yea, by the Infernal Streams
that glide through Stygian groves beneath the world,
I swear it. Every method has been tried.
The knife must cut immedicable wounds,
lest maladies infect untainted parts.
“Beneath my sway are demi gods and fauns,
nymphs, rustic deities, sylvans of the hills,
satyrs;--all these, unworthy Heaven's abodes,
we should at least permit to dwell on earth
which we to them bequeathed. What think ye, Gods,
is safety theirs when I, your sovereign lord,
the Thunder-bolt Controller, am ensnared
by fierce Lycaon?” Ardent in their wrath,
the astonished Gods demand revenge overtake
this miscreant; he who dared commit such crimes.
‘Twas even thus when raged that impious band
to blot the Roman name in sacred blood
of Caesar, sudden apprehensive fears
of ruin absolute astonished man,
and all the world convulsed. Nor is the love
thy people bear to thee, Augustus, less
than these displayed to Jupiter whose voice
and gesture all the murmuring host restrained:
and as indignant clamour ceased, suppressed
by regnant majesty, Jove once again
broke the deep silence with imperial words;
“Dismiss your cares; he paid the penalty
however all the crime and punishment
now learn from this:--An infamous report
of this unholy age had reached my ears,
and wishing it were false, I sloped my course
from high Olympus, andalthough a God
disguised in human form I viewed the world.
It would delay us to recount the crimes
unnumbered, for reports were less than truth.
“I traversed Maenalus where fearful dens
abound, over Lycaeus, wintry slopes
of pine tree groves, across Cyllene steep;
and as the twilight warned of night's approach,
I stopped in that Arcadian tyrant's realms
and entered his inhospitable home:--
and when I showed his people that a God
had come, the lowly prayed and worshiped me,
but this Lycaon mocked their pious vows
and scoffing said; ‘A fair experiment
will prove the truth if this be god or man.’
and he prepared to slay me in the night,--
to end my slumbers in the sleep of death.
So made he merry with his impious proof;
but not content with this he cut the throat
of a Molossian hostage sent to him,
and partly softened his still quivering limbs
in boiling water, partly roasted them
on fires that burned beneath. And when this flesh
was served to me on tables, I destroyed
his dwelling and his worthless Household Gods,
with thunder bolts avenging. Terror struck
he took to flight, and on the silent plains
is howling in his vain attempts to speak;
he raves and rages and his greedy jaws,
desiring their accustomed slaughter, turn
against the sheep--still eager for their blood.
His vesture separates in shaggy hair,
his arms are changed to legs; and as a wolf
he has the same grey locks, the same hard face,
the same bright eyes, the same ferocious look.
Aelian, On the Nature of Animals, 11.6 (ca. AD 200):
“And in Arcadian territory there is a shrine (hieron) of Pan; Aule is the name of the place. Now any animals that take refuge there the god respects as suppliants and protects in complete safety. For wolves in pursuit are afraid to enter it and are checked at the mere sight of the place of refuge. So there is private property for these animals too to enable them to survive.”
(Loeb Classical Library)
Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods, 3.53 & 3.57 (written 45 BC)
[3.53] In the first place the theologists, as they are called, enumerate three Jupiters, the first and second of whom were born in Arcadia, the one being the son of Aether, and also according to them the father of Proserpine and Liber, while the other was the son of Caelus, and is said to have been father to Minerva, the goddess whom they represent as the first author and founder of war; the third was the son of Saturn and belonged to Crete, and his tomb is shown in that island.
[3.57] The oldest Apollo is the one of whom I spoke just now as the son of Vulcan and protector of Athens; the second is the son of Corybas, and was born in Crete, and is said to have contended for that island with Jupiter himself; the third is the son of the third Jupiter and Latona, and there is a tradition that he came from the land of the Hyperboreans to Delphi; the fourth was born in Arcadia, and is called by the Arcadians Nomios, because, they say, they received laws from him.
[3.53] Principio Ioves tres numerant ii, qui theologi nominantur, ex quibus primum et secundum natos in Arcadia; alterum patre Aethere, ex quo etiam Proserpinam natam ferunt et Liberum, alterum patre Caelo, qui genuisse Minervam dicitur, quam principem et inventricem belli ferunt; tertium Cretensem Saturni filium; cuius in illa insula sepulcrum ostenditur.
[3.57] Apollinum antiquissimus is, quem paulo antea e Volcano natum esse dixi custodem Athenarum; alter Corybantis filius natus in Creta, cuius de illa insula cum Iove ipso certamen fuisse traditur; tertius Iove tertio natus et Latona, quem ex Hyperboreis Delphos ferunt advenisse; quartus in Arcadia, quem Arcades Nomion appellant, quod ab eo se leges ferunt accepisse.
[Hyginus], Astronomica, 2.1 (later 2nd cent. AD?)
We begin, then as we said above, with the Great Bear. Hesiod says she is named Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, who ruled in Arcadia. Out of her zeal for hunting she joined Diana, and was greatly loved by the goddess because of their similar temperaments. Later, when made pregnant by Jove, she feared to tell the truth to Diana. But she couldn’t conceal it long, for as her womb grew heavier near the time of her delivery, when she was refreshing her tired body in a stream, Diana realized she had not preserved her virginity. In keeping with her deep distrust, the goddess inflicted no light punishment. Taking away her maiden features, she changed her into the form of a bear, called arktos in Greek . In this form she bore Arcas.
But as Amphis, writer of comedies, says, Jupiter, assuming the form of Diana, followed the girl as if to aid her in hunting, and embraced her when out of sight of the rest. Questioned by Diana as to the reason for her swollen form, she replied that it was the goddess’ fault, and because of this reply, Diana changed her into the shape we mentioned above. When wandering like a wild beast in the forest, she was caught by certain Aetolians and brought into Arcadia to King Lycaon along with her son as a gift, and there, in ignorance of the law, she is said to have rushed into the temple of Jove Lycaeus. Her son at once followed her, and the Arcadians in pursuit were trying to kill them, when Jupiter, Mindful of his indiscretion, rescued her and placed her and her son among the constellations. He named her Arctos, and her son Arctophylax. About him we shall speak later.
Some, too, have said that when Callisto was embraced by Jove, Juno in anger turned her into a bear; then, when she met Diana hunting, she was killed by her, and later, on being recognized, was placed among the stars.
But others say that when Jupiter was pursuing Callisto in the woods, Juno, suspecting what had happened, hurried there so that she could say she had caught him openly. But Jove, the more easily to conceal his fault, left her changed to bear form. Juno, then, finding a bear instead of a girl in that place, pointed her out for Diana, who was hunting, to kill. Jove was distressed to see this, and put in the sky the likeness of a bear represented with stars.
This constellation, as many have stated, does not set, and those who desire some reason for this fact say that Tethys, wife of Ocean, refuses to receive her when the other stars come there to their setting, because Tethys was the nurse of Juno, in whose bed Callisto was a concubine. Araethus of Tegea, however, writer of histories, says that she wasn’t Callisto, but Megisto, and wasn’t the daughter of Lycaon, but of Ceteus, and so granddaughter of Lycaon. He says, too, that Ceteus himself was called the Kneeler. The other details agree with what has been said above. All this is shown to have taken place on the Arcadian mountain Nonacris.
Igitur, ut supra diximus, initium nobis est Arctos maxima. Hanc autem Hesiodus ait esse Callisto nomine, Lycaonis filiam, eius qui in Arcadia regnavit; eamque studio venationis inductam, ad Dianam se applicuisse, a qua non mediocriter esse dilectam propter utriusque consimilem naturam. Postea autem ab Iove compressam veritam Dianae suum dicere eventum. Quod diutius celare non potuit; nam iam utero ingravescente, prope diem partus in flumine corpus exercitatione defessum cum recrearet, a Diana cognita est non conservasse virginitatem. Cui deo pro magnitudine suspicionis non minorem retribuit poenam. Erepta enim facie virginali, in ursae speciem est conversa, quae Graece arktos appellatur. In ea figura corporis Arcada procreavit. Sed ut ait Amphis comoediarum scriptor, Iuppiter simulatus effigiem Dianae, cum virginem venantem ut adiuvans persequeretur, amotam a conspectu ceterarum compressit. Quae rogata a Diana quid ei accidisset, quod tam grandi utero videretur, illius peccato id evenisse dixit. Itaque propter eius responsum, in quam figuram supra diximus, eam Diana convertit. Quae cum in silva ut fera vagaretur, a quibusdam Aetolorum capta, ad Lycaonem pro munere in Arcadiam cum filio est deducta ibique dicitur inscia legis in Iovis Lycaei templum se coniecisse; quam confestim filius est secutus. Itaque cum eos Arcades insecuti interficere conarentur, Iuppiter memor peccati ereptam Callisto cum filio intere sidera collocavit, eamque Arctum, filium autem Arctophylaca nominavit, de quo posterius dicemus. Nonnulli etiam duxerunt, cum Callisto ab Iove essset compressa, Iunonem indignatam in ursam eam convertisse; quam Dianae venanti obviam factam, ab ea interfectam, et postea cognitam inter sidera collocatam. Sed alii dicunt, cum Callisto Iuppiter esset in silva persecutus, Iunonem suspicatam id quod evenit, contendisse, ut eum manifesto diceret deprehendisse. Iovem autem, quo facilius suum peccatum tegeretur, in ursae speciem conversam reliquisse. Iunonem autem in eo loco pro virgine ursam invenisse; quam Dianae venanti, ut eam interficeret, demonstrasse. Quod factum ut perspiceretur, Iovem aegre tulisse; effigiem ursae stellis figuratam constituisse.
Hoc signum, ut complures dixere, non occidit. Et qui volunt aliqua de causa esse institutum, negant Tethyn Oceani uxorem id recipere, cum reliqua sidera perveniant in occasum, quod Tethys Iunonis sit nutrix, cui Callisto succubuerit ut paelex. Araethus autem Tegeates historiarum scriptor non Callisto, sed Megisto dicit appellatam, et non Lycaonis, sed Cetei filiam, Lycaonis neptem; praeterea Cetea ipsum Engonasin nominari. Reliqua autem superioribus conveniunt. Quae res in Nonacri monte Arcadiae gesta demonstratur.
[Hyginus], Astronomica, 2.4 (later 2nd cent. AD?)
He is said to be Arcas, the son of Jove and Callisto, whom Lycaon served at a banquet, cut up with other meat, when Jupiter came to him as a guest. For Lycaon wanted to know whether the one who had asked for his hospitality was a god or not. For this deed he was punished by no slight punishment, for Jupiter, quickly overturning the table, burned the house with a thunderbolt, and turned Lycaon himself into a wolf. But the scattered limbs of the boy he put together, and gave him to a certain Aetolian to care for. When, grown to manhood, he was hunting in the woods, he saw his mother changed to bear form, and did not recognize her. Intent on killing her, he chased her into the temple of Jove Lycaeus, where the penalty for entering is death, according to Arcadian law. And so, since both would have to die, Jupiter, out of pity, snatched them up and put them among the stars, as I have said before. As a result, Arcas is seen following the Bear, and since he guards Arctos, he is called Arctophylax.
IV. ARCTOPHYLAX. De hoc fertur ut sit Arcas nomine, Callistus et Iovis filius, quem dicitur Lycaon, cum Iuppiter ad eum in hospitium venisset, cum alia carne concisum pro epulis apposuisse. Studebat enim scire, si deus esset, qui suum hospitium desideraret; quo facto non minore poena est affectus. Nam statim Iuppiter, mensa proiecta, domum eius fulmine incendit; ipsum autem in lupi figuram convertit. At pueri membra collecta et composita in unum dedit cuidam Aetolorum alendum. Qui adulescens factus in silvis cum venaretur, inscius vidit matrem in ursae speciem conversam; quam interficere cogitans persecutus est in Iovis Lycaei templum, quo ei qui accessisset, mors poena erat Arcadum lege. Itaque cum utrumque necesse esset interfici, Iuppiter eorum misertus, ereptos inter sidera collocavit, ut ante diximus. Hic autem e facto sequens Ursam perspicitur, et Arctum servans Arctophylax est appellatus.
Hesiod, The Astronomy, Fr.3 (7th cent. BC?)
=[Eratosthenes], Catasterismi Frag 1.2
The Great Bear (Arktos Megale) - Hesiod says she [Callisto] was the daughter of Lykaon and lived in Arcadia. She chose to occupy herself with wild-beasts in the mountains together with Artemis, and, when she was seduced by Zeus, continued some time undetected by the goddess, but afterwards, when she was already with child, was seen by her bathing and so discovered. Upon this, the goddess was enraged and changed her into a beast. Thus she became a bear and gave birth to a son called Arkas. But while she was in the mountain, she was hunted by some goat-herds and given up with her babe to Lykaon. Some while after, she thought fit to go into the forbidden precinct [abaton] of Zeus, not knowing the law, and being pursued by her own son and the Arcadians, was about to be killed because of the said law; but Zeus delivered her because of her connection with him and put her among the stars, giving her the name Arktos (Bear) because of the misfortune which had befallen her.
Virgil, Aeneid, 8.342-344
Next the vast grove was seen, where Romulus
ordained inviolable sanctuary;
then the Lupercal under its cold crag,
named from the Parrhasian worship of Lykaian Pan.
hinc lucum ingentem, quem Romulus acer asylum
rettulit, et gelida monstrat sub rupe Lupercal
Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycaei.
Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.10 (written ca. 386 BC, describing events of 401 BC)
Thence he marched two stages, ten parasangs, to Peltae, an inhabited city. There he remained three days, during which time Xenias the Arcadian celebrated the Lycaean festival with sacrifice and held games; the prizes were golden strigils, and Cyrus himself was one of those who watched the games.
Anonymous, ap. Aelius Festus Aphthonius (3rd or 4th cent. CE), de Metris Omnibus,“de paeonico metro”; cp. Baehrens Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum, incertorum versiculi varii, 100.
Hail, you who of the gods through the high steps of Lykaion... me...
io, quis deorum per altos Lycaei gradus me
Aristotle, apud schol. Aristid. p. 105
…The order of the games is written according to Aristotle: First were the Eleusinia because of the fruit of Demeter; second the Panathenaia for the slaying of the giant Aster by Athena; third, that which Danaos founded at Argos for the marriage of his daughters; and fourth in Arkadia by Lykaon, which were called the Lykaia…seventh the Olympics.
ἡ τάξις τῶν ἀγώνων καθὰ Ἀριστοτέλης ἀναγράφεται· πρῶτα μὲν τὰ
Ἐλευσίνια διὰ τὸν καρπὸν τῆς Δήμητρος· δεύτερα δὲ τὰ Παναθήναια ἐπὶ
Ἀστέρι τῷ γίγαντι ὑπὸ Ἀθηνᾶς ἀναιρεθέντι· τρίτος ὃν ἐν Ἄργει Δαναὸς
ἔθηκε διὰ τὸν γάμον τῶν θυγατέρων αὐτοῦ· τέταρτος ὁ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ τεθεὶς
ὑπὸ Λυκάονος, ὃς ἐκλήθη Λύκαια· πέμπτος ὁ ἐν Ἰωλκῷ Ἀκάστου
καθηγησαμένου ἐπὶ Πελίᾳ τῷ πατρί· ἕκτος ὁ ἐν Ἰσθμῷ Σισύφου
νομοθετήσαντος ἐπὶ Μελικέρτῃ· ἕβδομος ὁ Ὀλυμπιακὸς Ἡρακλέους
νομοθετήσαντος ἐπὶ Πέλοπι· ὄγδοος ὁ ἐν Νεμέᾳ, ὃν ἔθηκαν οἱ ἑπτὰ ἐπὶ
Θήβας ἐπὶ Ἀρχεμόρῳ· ἔνατος ὁ ἐν Τροίᾳ, ὃν Ἀχιλλεὺς ἐπὶ Πατρόκλῳ
ἐποίησεν· δέκατος ὁ Πυθικός, ὃν οἱ Ἀμφικτύονες ἐπὶ τῷ Πύθωνος φόνῳ
ἔθηκαν. ταύτην τὴν τάξιν ὁ τοὺς πέπλους συνθεὶς Ἀριστοτέλης ἐξέθετο
τῶν ἀρχαίων καὶ παλαιῶν
Calpurnius Siculus, Bucolica, 4.132-3 (mid 1st c. AD)
More secure with the Caesarean numen, Lykaian Pan himself inhabits once more the forests...
numine Caesareo securior ipse Lycaeus
Pan recolit siluas et amoena Faunus in umbra
securus recubat placidoque in fonte lauatur
Nais et humanum non calcatura cruorem
per iuga siccato uelox pede currit Oreas.
Sidonius Apollinaris, Carmina, 9.168-180 (written mid 5th cent. AD)
Non divos specialibus faventes
agris, urbibus insulisque canto,
Saturnum Latio Iovemque Cretae
Iunonemque Samo Rhodoque Solem,
Hennae Persephonen, Minervam Hymetto,
Vulcanum Liparae, Papho Dionen,
Argis Persea, Lampasco Priapum,
Thebis Euhion Ilioque Vestam,
Thymbrae Delion, Arcadem Lycaeo,
Martem Thracibus ac Scythis Dianam,
quos fecere deos dicata templa,
tus, sal, far, mola vel superfluarum
Pedanius Dioscorides, de Materia Medica III, 6.1-3 (written ca. 50-70 CE)
1. The centaury, but some call it narce and others gentiane: it has leaves similar to the leaves of the walnut tree, oblong, pale in color like the leaves of the cabbage; their margin is serrated like a saw; it has a stem like that of monk rhubarb, two cubits tall or even three, having many offshoots rising from the root, on which there are heads resembling poppies that are somewhat long in circumference. The flower is dark blue; the seed is similar to that of safflower, nestled as if among flowers made of wool; the root is thick, solid, heavy, about two cubits long, full of juice that is sharp with a degree of astringency and sweetness, and reddish; the juice, too, is similarly red.
2. It likes a rich soil, a sunny location, thickets, and hillocks. It grows in abundance in Lycia and, within Peloponnesos, in Elis, Arcadia, Messene, and around Pholoe, Lykaion, and Cyllene. The root, taken with wine, is suitable for ruptures, spasms, people with pleurisy, dyspnea, for an old cough, and for those who spit blood, provided they are free of fever; but to those who run a fever an amount of two drachmai of root is given with water.
3. It is similarly given both for colic and for pains in the uterus. It draws down the menses and embryos/fetuses when whittled, shaped like a pessary, and applied to the uterus. The juice accomplishes the same. The root is also good for injuried, chopped up moist, but if it is dry, it is first moistened and then chopped up. For it does draw matter together, it agglutinates, and it contracts meats that are boiling, if one chopped it up and cooked it with the meats. People in Lycia use its extracted juice instead of a decoction of dyer's buckthorn.
Translation by Lily Y. Beck, 2005.
(1) κενταύρειον τὸ μέγα· οἱ δὲ νάρκην, <οἱ δὲ γεντιανὴν> καλοῦσι.
φύλλα ἔχει καρύᾳ βασιλικῇ ἐοικότα, προμήκη, χρώματι χλωρὰ ὡς κράμβης·
τὸ δὲ περιφερὲς αὐτῶν ἐντέτμηται ὥσπερ πρίων· καυλὸν δὲ ἔχει ὡς
λάπαθον, δίπηχυν ἢ καὶ τρίπηχυν, παραφυάδας ἀπὸ τῆς ῥίζης ἔχοντα
πολλάς, ἐφ’ ὧν κεφαλαὶ ὅμοιαι μήκωνι, ὑπομήκεις ἐν τῷ περιφερεῖ, ἄνθος
κυανίζον· καρπὸς δὲ ὅμοιος κνήκῳ, ἐγκείμενος ὥσπερ ἐν ἐριώδεσι τοῖς
ἄνθεσι, ῥίζα παχεῖα, στερεά, βαρεῖα, περὶ πήχεις δύο, μεστὴ χυλοῦ,
δριμεῖα μετὰ ποσῆς στύψεως καὶ γλυκύτητος,
(2) ὑπέρυθρος· ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ὁ χυλὸς ἐρυθρός. φιλεῖ δὲ λιπαρὰν γῆν,
εὐήλιον, δρυμοὺς καὶ γεώλοφα· πλεονάζει δὲ ἐν Λυκίᾳ καὶ ἐντὸς τῆς
Πελοποννήσου ἐν Ἤλιδι καὶ Ἀρκαδίᾳ καὶ Μεσσηνίᾳ καὶ περὶ Φολόην καὶ
Λύκαιον καὶ Κυλλήνην. ἁρμόζει δὲ ἡ ῥίζα ῥήγμασι, σπάσμασι,
πλευριτικοῖς, δυσπνοίᾳ, βηχὶ παλαιᾷ, αἱμοπτυϊκοῖς, ἀπυρέτοις μὲν μετ’
οἴνου, πυρέσσουσι δὲ μεθ’ ὕδατος δραχμῶν δυεῖν πλῆθος τῆς ῥίζης
διδόμενον καὶ πρὸς στρόφους ὁμοίως καὶ ὑστέρας ἀλγήματα.
(3) ἄγει δὲ καὶ ἔμμηνα καὶ ἔμβρυα εἰς σχῆμα κολλυρίου ξυσθεῖσα καὶ
προστεθεῖσα τῇ ὑστέρᾳ· ὁ δὲ χυλὸς τὰ αὐτὰ ποιεῖ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ
τραυματική, ὑγρὰ μὲν κοπεῖσα, ξηρὰ δὲ προβραχεῖσα καὶ οὕτως κοπεῖσα·
συνάγει γὰρ καὶ κολλᾷ, καὶ τὰ ἑψόμενα δὲ κρέα συνάγει, ἐάν τις αὐτὴν
κόψας συνεψήσῃ. οἱ δὲ ἐν Λυκίᾳ χυλίζοντες χρῶνται αὐτῷ ἀντὶ λυκίου.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 4.22.1-2 (ca. AD 160)
1. As soon as the Arcadians heard of the capture of Eira, they at once ordered Aristocrates to lead them to the rescue of the Messenians or to death with them. But he, being in receipt of bribes from Lacedaemon, refused to lead them, and said that he knew that no Messenian survived for them to help.
2. When they obtained more certain news, that they survived and had been forced to desert Eira, they themselves proposed to receive them at Mount Lykaion after preparing clothing and food, and sent some of their leading men to comfort the Messenians and also to be their guides on the way. After their safe arrival at Mount Lykaion, the Arcadians entertained them and treated them kindly in every way, offering to distribute them among their towns and to make a new distribution of their land on their account.
οἱ δὲ Ἀρκάδες παραυτίκα τε τὴν κατάληψιν ἐπυνθάνοντο τῆς Εἴρας καὶ
αὐτίκα τὸν Ἀριστοκράτην ἐκέλευον σφᾶς ἄγειν ὡς ἢ σώσοντας Μεσσηνίους ἢ
σὺν αὐτοῖς ἀπολουμένους. ὁ δὲ ἅτε ἐκ τῆς Λακεδαίμονος δεδεγμένος δῶρα,
οὔτε ἄγειν ἤθελεν εἰδέναι τε ἔφασκεν οὐδένα ἔτι Μεσσηνίων ὅτῳ καὶ
ἀμυνοῦσιν ὄντα ὑπόλοιπον. τότε δὲ ὡς σαφέστερον ᾐσθάνοντο περιόντας
καὶ ἐκλείπειν τὴν Εἶραν βεβιασμένους, αὐτοὶ μὲν περὶ τὸ ὄρος σφᾶς τὸ
Λύκαιον ἔμελλον ὑποδέξεσθαι, προετοιμασάμενοι καὶ ἐσθῆτα καὶ σιτία,
ἄνδρας δὲ τῶν ἐν τέλει πέμπουσι παραμυθεῖσθαί τε τοὺς Μεσσηνίους καὶ
ἡγεμόνας ἅμα τῆς πορείας γενέσθαι. καὶ τοὺς μέν, ὡς ἐς τὸ Λύκαιον
ἀνεσώθησαν, ἐξένιζον καὶ τὰ ἄλλα εὐνοϊκῶς περιεῖπον οἱ Ἀρκάδες,
κατανέμειν τε ἐς τὰς πόλεις ἤθελον καὶ ἀναδάσασθαι δι’ ἐκείνους τὴν
Virgil, Eclogues, 10.14-15
Him [Gallus], as he lay beneath a lonely cliff, even Maenalus with his crown of pines wept, and the rocks of chill Lycaeus...
pinifer illum etiam sola sub rupe iacentem
Maenalus et gelidi fleuerunt saxa Lycaei.
Parian Marble, FGrHist 239 A 17, (inscribed 264/3 BCE)
(Between From when in Eleusis the gymnastic [games]... the festival of Lykaian Zeus took place in Arcadia and... of Lykaon were given to the Hell[enes, ... years] when Pandion son of Kekrops was king of Athens.
Strabo, Geography, 8.8.2 (written ca. AD 25)
...Famous mountains, in addition to Cyllene, are Pholoe, Lykaion, Maenalus, and the Parthenium, as it is called, which extends from the territory of Tegea down to the Argive country.
Strabo, Geography, 4.6.12 (written ca. AD 25)
The same man [Polybius], in telling about the size and the height of the Alps, contrasts with them the greatest mountains among the Greeks: Taygetus, Lykaion, Parnassus, Olympus, Pelion, Ossa...
Strabo, Geography, 8.3.22 (written ca. AD 25)
The stream of the Neda is the boundary between Triphylia and Messenia (an impetuous stream that comes down from Lykaion, an Arkadian mountain, out of a spring, which, according to the myth, Rhea, after she had given birth to Zeus, caused to break forth in order to have water to bathe in); and it flows past Phigalia, opposite the place where the Pyrgetans, last of the Triphylians, border on the Cyparissians, first of the Messenians; but in the early times the division between these two countries was different, so that some of the territories across the Neda were subject to Nestor - not only Cyparisseeis, but also some other parts on the far side.
Strabo, Geography, 8.8.3 (written ca. AD 25)
But Tegea still endures fairly well, and so does the temple of the Alean Athena; and the temple [hieron] of Lykaian Zeus situated near [kata] Mt. Lykaion is also honoured to a slight extent...
Theocritus, Idylls, 1.122-126 (written 3rd cent. BC)
Pan, Pan, oh whether great Lyceum’s crags
Thou haunt’st to-day, or mightier Maenalus,
Come to the Sicel isle! Abandon now
Rhium and Helicè, and the mountain-cairn
(That e’en gods cherish) of Lycaon’s son!
Forget, sweet Maids, forget your woodland song.
123c. Lykaion is a mountain of Arkadia, named for Lykaon the son of Pelasgos, on which is also an oracle of Pan.
123e. On Lykaion they say there is a place named [for Callisto]... (123f.) They say animals become sterile if they enter it.
L. Ampelius, Liber Memorialis, 9.1 (written ca. 3rd century CE)
There were three Jupiters: the first in Arcadia, the son of Aether, whose cognomen was Aetherius; this one first created the son. The second likewise in Arcadia who was cognomened Saturnius; who begat from Proserpina Liber Pater the inventor of wine. The third, on Crete, the son of Saturn and Ops, is called Optimus Maximus.
Quot ferunt vel esse Iovis vel ubi; in loco deos deasque:
Ioves fuere tres: primus in Arcadia Aetheris filius, cui etiam Aetherius cognomen fuit; hic primum Solem procreavit. Secundus ibidem in Arcadia qui Saturnius cognominatur; qui ex Proserpina Liberum patrem procreavit vini inventorem. Tertius Cretae Saturni et Opis filius, Optimus Maximus qui est appellatus.
cf. Cicero, de Natura Deorum 3.53
Plutarch, Greek Questions 39 (ca. AD 110)
Question. Why do the Arcadians stone those that go willingly into the Lycaeum, while those that go in ignorantly they carry forth to Eleutherae?
Solution. Is it on the ground that they gained their liberty by being thus absolved, that the story has gained credit? And is this saying “to Eleutherae” the same as "into the region of security," or “thou shalt come to the seat of pleasure”? Or is the reason to be rendered according to that fabulous story, that of all the sons of Lycaon Eleuther and Lebadus alone were free from that conspiracy against Jupiter, and fled into Boeotia, where the Lebadenses use the like civil polity to that of the Arcadians, and therefore they send them to Eleutherae that enter unwittingly into the inaccessible temple of Jupiter? Or is it (as Architimos says in his Arcadica) that some that went into the Lycaeum unawares were delivered up to the Phliasians by the Arcadians, and by the Phliasians to the Megarians, and by the Megarians to the Thebans which inhabit about Eleutherae, where they are detained under rain, thunder, and other direful judgments from Heaven; and upon this account some say this place was called Eleutherae. But the report is not true that he that enters into the Lycaeum casts no shadow, though it hath had a firm belief. And what if this be the reason of that report, that the air converted into clouds looks darkly on them that go in? Or that he that goes in falls down dead? - for the Pythagoreans say that the souls of the deceased do neither give a shadow nor wink. Or is it that the sun only makes a shadow, and the law bereaveth him that entereth here of the sight of the sun? Though this they speak enigmatically; for verily he that goes in is called Elaphus, a stag. Hence the Lacedaemonians delivered up to the Arcadians Cantharion the Arcadian, who went over to the Eleans whilst they waged war with the Arcadians, passing with his booty through the inaccessible temple, and fled to Sparta when the war was ended; the oracle requiring them to restore the stag.
Aratus, Phaenomena 91
Scholion to Dionysius Periegeta, 415.
After the death of Arkas, since there were three sons, they divided the rule. Elatos took the part of Orchomenos... Apheidas took Tegea... and Azan that part named after himself, Azania. The Parrhasian part, in which is the sanctuary of Lykaian Zeus, they permitted entrance to all in common.
Ἀρκάδες Ἀπιδανῆες] Μετὰ τὸν Ἀρκάδος θάνατον οἱ παῖδες αὐτοῦ τρεῖς
ὄντες ἐνείμαντο τὴν ἀρχήν. Ἔλατος μὲν ἔλαχε μοῖραν Ὀρχομενὸν,
Μαντίνειαν καὶ τὴν Κυνουρικὴν, ἥτις Θυρέα καὶ Ἀνθήνη καὶ τὰ περὶ τοὺς
καλουμένους Πραίους· Ἀφείδας δὲ Τέγεαν καὶ τὰ περὶ Μαιναλίαν· Ἀζὰν δὲ
καὶ τὴν ἀφ’ ἑαυτοῦ Ἀζανίαν ** τὸν διὰ παρρησίαν, ἐν ᾧ τὸ τοῦ Λυκαίου
Διὸς ἱερὸν εἰς τὰς κοινὰς εἰσόδους εἴασαν.
Donatus, Vergilian Interpretations, ad Aen. 8.344 (written ca. AD 400)
Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycaei: Parrhasium montem esse memorant et ab eo incolas Parrhasios dictos, Lycaeum adaeque montem, unde Lycaeum ferunt extitisse, cuius ex more cultores sacra reddebant Panos, unde singulari numero Pan dicitur; hos enim Arcades plurimum venerantur.
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica, 6.529-541 (written ca. AD 80)
But not far from thence Rambelus and fierce Otaxes had routed the Colchians, and likewise inglorious Armes, wont by a new device and still unpunished ruse to ravage flocks and herds, for clothed in shaggy hide he wore stags’ horns upon his face and lurked in the terrors of the Lykaian god. In such aspect had he then held his enemies spellbound, when Aron saw him plying this unwonted terror in the fight, and “Now thinkest thou,” said he, “that thou art assailing timid herdsmen and brute cattle? No pastures or oxen hast thou here; keep thy counterfeits for nocturnal raids, and pretend not to be a god; nay, even if a god, do battle with me!” So doth he speak, and aims the missile to which his firmly planted foot gives aid; the shaggy hide fell away, and the wound showed clear.
at non inde procul Rambelus et acer Otaxes
dispulerant Colchos pariterque inglorius Armis,
fraude nova stabula et furtis adsuetus inultis
depopulare greges frontem cum cornibus auxit
hispidus inque dei latuit terrore Lycaei;
hac tunc attonitos facie defixerat hostes.
quem simul ac nota formidine bella moventem
vidit Aron, 'pavidos te' inquit 'nunc rere magistros
et stolidum petiisse pecus? non pascua nec bos
hic tibi: nocturni mitte haec simulamina Panis
neve deum mihi finge. deus quoque consere dextram.'
sic ait intentaque adiutum missile planta
derigit et lapsis patuerunt vulnera villis.
Ovid, Fasti, 2.423-424 (ca. AD 15)
Why shouldn't the Luperci be named from the Arcadian peak?
Lycaean Faunus has temples in Arcadia.
Quid vetat Arcadio dictos a monte Lupercos?
Faunus in Arcadia templa Lycaeus habet.
Virgil, Georgics, 4.538-540
Choose out four noble bulls of stately girth that now graze the heights of green Lycaeus, and as many heifers whose neck no yoke has touched.
Quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros,
qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei,
delige et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas.
Virgil, Georgics, 1.16-18
...even thou, leaving thy native woodland and thy Lycean lawns, Pan of Tegea, shepherd of the flock, so thou love thy Maenalus, be gracious and come...
ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycaei
Pan, ouium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae,
adsis, o Tegeaee, fauens...
Virgil, Georgics, 3
[3.1-2] Thee also, mighty Pales, and thee will we sing, O renowned shepherd of Amphrysus, and you, Lycaean woods and rivers.
[3.314-317] Their pasture indeed is on Lycaean wood and hill-top, rough briars and brushwood clinging to the steep; and unherded they return heedfully home, leading their young, and hardly lift their heavy udders through the doorway.
[3.1-2] Te quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus
pastor ab Amphryso, uos, siluae amnesque Lycaei.
[3.314-317] pascuntur uero siluas et summa Lycaei,
horrentisque rubos et amantis ardua dumos,
atque ipsae memores redeunt in tecta suosque
ducunt et grauido superant uix ubere limen.
Virgil, Georgics, 3
[3.1-2] Thee also, mighty Pales, and thee will we sing, O renowned shepherd of Amphrysus, and you, Lycaean woods and rivers.
[3.314-317] Their pasture indeed is on Lycaean wood and hill-top, rough briars and brushwood clinging to the steep; and unherded they return heedfully home, leading their young, and hardly lift their heavy udders through the doorway.
[3.1-2] Te quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus
pastor ab Amphryso, uos, siluae amnesque Lycaei.
[3.314-317] pascuntur uero siluas et summa Lycaei,
horrentisque rubos et amantis ardua dumos,
atque ipsae memores redeunt in tecta suosque
ducunt et grauido superant uix ubere limen.
Leonidas of Tarentum, Epigrams -- Palatine Anthology, 6.188 (3rd cent. BC)
Therimachus the Cretan suspended these his hare-staves to Lycaean Pan on the Arcadian cliff. But do thou, country god, in return for his gift, direct aright the archer’s hand in battle, and in the forest dells stand beside him on his right hand, giving him supremacy in the chase and supremacy over his foes.
Ovid, Metamorphoses, 8.316-318 (AD 8)
...and the Tegaean [Atalanta], the glory of the Lykaian grove, with a polished brooch clasping the neck of her garment, and her hair simply done, caught in a single knot.
...nemorisque decus Tegeaea Lycaei:
rasilis huic summam mordebat fibula vestem,
crinis erat simplex, nodum conlectus in unum
Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.698-700 (AD 8)
Descending from Lycaeus, Pan admires
The matchless nymph [Syrinx], and burns with new desires.
A crown of pine upon his head he wore...
Redeuntem colle Lycaeo
Pan videt hanc pinuque caput praecinctus acuta
talia verba refert
Horace, Odes, 1.17.1-2 (23 B.C.)
Often swift Faunus exchanges Lykaion for pleasing Lucretilis [a Sabine mountain]...
Velox amoenum saepe Lucretilem
mutat Lycaeo Faunus et igneam
defendit aestatem capellis
usque meis pluuiosque uentos.
Inpune tutum per nemus arbutos
quaerunt latentis et thyma deuiae
olentis uxores mariti
nec uiridis metuunt colubras
nec Martialis haediliae lupos,
utcumque dulci, Tyndari, fistula
ualles et Vsticae cubantis
leuia personuere saxa.
Di me tuentur, dis pietas mea
et Musa cordi est. Hic tibi copia
manabit ad plenum benigno
ruris honorum opulenta cornu;
hic in reducta ualle Caniculae
uitabis aestus et fide Teia
dices laborantis in uno
Penelopen uitreamque Circen;
hic innocentis pocula Lesbii
duces sub umbra nec Semeleius
cum Marte confundet Thyoneus
proelia nec metues proteruum
suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari
incontinentis iniciat manus
et scindat haerentem coronam
crinibus inmeritamque uestem.
Columella, On Farming, 10.263-267 (mid 1st c. AD)
Now I entreat you, o Acheloid companions of the Pegasids and Maenalian choruses of Dryads and Napean nymphs, who inhabit the grove of Amphrysus, Thessalian Tempe, the rough heights of Cyllene and shady Lykaion, and the caves always dripping with Castalian drops...
Nunc vos Pegasidum comites Acheloidas oro
Maenaliosque choros Dryadum nymphasque Napaeas,
quae colitis nemus Amphrysi, quae Thessala Tempe, 265
quae iuga Cyllenes et opaci rura Lycaei
antraque Castaliis semper rorantia guttis
Claudius Claudianus, Panegyric on the Consulship of Stilicho, I.181-187 (written 400 AD)
Thee mindful Eurotas, thee Lycaeus’ rustic muse, thee Maenalus celebrates in pastoral song, and therewith the woods of Parthenius, where, thanks to thy victorious arms, weary Greece has raised once more her head from amid the flames. Then did Ladon, river of Arcadia, stay his course amid the countless bodies, and Alphaeus, choked with heaps of slaughtered Getae, won his way more slowly to his Sicilian love.
Te memor Eurotas, te rustica Musa Lycaei,
te pastorali modulantur Maenala cantu
Partheniumque nemus, quod te pugnante resurgens
aegra caput mediis erexit Graecia flammis.
plurima Parrhasius tunc inter corpora Ladon 185
haesit et Alpheus Geticis angustus acervis
tardior ad Siculos etiamnunc pergit amores.
Claudius Claudianus, Panegyric on the Fourth Consulship of Emperor Honorius, lines 459-483 (written A.D. 398)
[describing the aftermath of Stilicho's defeat of Alaric's Goths in A.D. 397 near Mt. Pholoe, roughly 35 km northwest of Lykaion:]
Thou biddest Stilicho after restoring peace in Gaul save Greece from ruin. Vessels cover the Ionian sea; scarce can the wind fill out so many sails. Neptune with favouring currents attends the fleet that is to save Corinth, and young Palaemon, so long an exile from the shores of his isthmus, returns in safety with his mother to the harbour. The blood of barbarians washes their wagons; the ranks of skin-clad warriors are mowed down, some by disease, some by the sword. The glades of Lycaeus, the dark and boundless forests of Erymanthus, are not enough to furnish such countless funeral pyres; Maenalus rejoices that the axe has stripped her of her woods to provide fuel for such a holocaust. Let Ephyre rise from her ashes while Spartan and Arcadian, now safe, tread under foot the heaps of slain; let Greece's sufferings be made good and her weary land be allowed to breathe once more. That nation, wider spread than any that dwells in northern Scythia, that found Athos too small and Thrace too narrow when it crossed them, that nation, I say, was conquered by thee and thy captains, and now, in the persons of the few that survive, laments its own overthrow. One hill now shelters a people whose hordes scarce the whole world could once contain. Athirst and hemmed within their rampart they sought in vain for the stolen waters, that, once within our foemen’s reach, Stilicho had turned aside in another course, and commanded the stream, that marvelled at its strange channel amid unknown ways, to shift its altered track.
Post otia Galli
limitis hortaris Graias fulcire ruinas. 360
Ionium tegitur velis ventique laborant
tot curvare sinus servaturasque Corinthum
prosequitur facili Neptunus gurgite classes,
et puer, Isthmiaci iam pridem litoris exul,
secura repetit portus cum matre Palaemon.
plaustra cruore natant: metitur pellita iuventus:
pars morbo, pars ense perit. non lustra Lycaei,
non Erymantheae iam copia sufficit umbrae
innumeris exusta rogis, nudataque ferro
sic flagrasse suas laetantur Maenala silvas. 370
excutiat cineres Ephyre, Spartanus et Arcas
tutior exanguis pedibus proculcet acervos
fessaque pensatis respiret Graecia poenis!
gens, qua non Scythicos diffusior ulla Triones
incoluit, cui parvus Athos angustaque Thrace,
cum transiret, erat, per te viresque tuorum
fracta ducum lugetque sibi iam rara superstes,
et, quorum turbae spatium vix praebuit orbis,
uno colle latent. sitiens inclusaque vallo
ereptas quaesivit aquas, quas hostibus ante 380
contiguas alio Stilicho deflexerat actu
mirantemque novas ignota per avia valles
iusserat averso fluvium migrare meatu.
Claudius Claudianus, Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Emperor Honorius, lines 193-200 (written 404 AD)
So spake he [the river god Eridanus], and rising yet farther out of the stream he loudly summoned the rivers of Liguria and Venetia. These raise their dripping heads from among their leafy banks, fair Ticinus, blue Addua, swift Athesis, slow Mincius, and Timavus with his nine mouths. All mock at the fugitive [Alaric] and recall the happy flocks to the now peaceful meadows; Lycaean Pan is bidden to return and the Dryads and Fauns, gods of the countryside.
Sic fatus Ligures Venetosque erectior amnes
magna voce ciet. frondentibus umida ripis
colla levant: pulcher Ticinus et Addua visu
caerulus et velox Athesis tardusque meatu
Mincius inque novem consurgens ora Timavus.
insultant omnes profugo pacataque laetum
invitant ad prata pecus; iam Pana Lycaeum,
iam Dryadas revocant et rustica numina Faunos. 200
Statius, Silvae, 1.3.74-76
haec domus Egeriae nemoralem abiungere Phoeben
et Dryadum viduare choris algentia possit
Taygeta et silvis accersere Pana Lycaeis.
Statius, Thebaid, (written ca. 50-96 CE)
frangitur omne nemus, rapiunt antiqua procellae
bracchia silvarum, nullis que aspecta per aevum
solibus umbrosi patuere aestiva Lycaei.
ergo alacres Argi, fuso rumore per urbem
advenisse duci generos primis que hymenaeis
egregiam Argian nec formae laude secundam
Deipylen tumida iam virginitate iugari,
gaudia mente parant; socias it Fama per urbes,
finitimis que agitatur agris procul usque Lycaeos
Parthenios que super saltus Ephyraea que rura
nec minus Ogygias eadem dea turbida Thebas
tu quoque Parrhasias ignara matre catervas -
a rudis annorum, tantum nova gloria suadet! -,
Parthenopaee, rapis; saltus tunc forte remotos
torva parens - neque enim haec iuveni foret ire potestas -
pacabat cornu gelidi que aversa Lycaei.
sternitur extemplo veteres incaedua ferro
silva comas, largae qua non opulentior umbrae
Argolicos inter saltus que educta Lycaeos
extulerat super astra caput: stat sacra senectae
numine, nec solos hominum transgressa veterno
fertur avos, Nymphas etiam mutasse superstes
Faunorum que greges.
onerat celeberrima natum
mater, et ipse procul fama iam notus inermes
narratur cervas pedes inter aperta Lycaei
tollere et emissum cursu deprendere telum.
'quod Iovis imperium, magno quid ab aethere portas?'
occupat Armipotens 'neque enim hunc, germane, sub axem
sponte venis hiemes que meas, cui roscida iuxta
Maenala et aestivi clementior aura Lycaei'.
frustra de colle Lycaei
anxia prospectas, si quis per nubila longe
aut sonus aut nostro sublatus ab agmine pulvis:
frigidus et nuda iaceo tellure, nec usquam
tu prope, quae voltus efflantia que ora teneres.
illas et lucis Hecate speculata Lycaeis
prosequitur gemitu, duplex que ad litus euntis
planxit ab Isthmiaco genetrix Thebana sepulcro,
noctivagum que gregem, quamvis sibi luget, Eleusin
flevit et arcanos errantibus extulit ignis.