2007

Field Season 2007 Field Season 2007
Fig. 1: Group photo on the ash altar at the beginning of the season, June 27. Fig. 1: Group photo on the ash altar at the beginning of the season, June 27.
Fig. 2: Apostolis Sarris and his team doing remote sensing below the hippodrome. Fig. 2: Apostolis Sarris and his team doing remote sensing below the hippodrome.
Fig. 3: David Romano lecturing during a visit to the site of Olympia. Fig. 3: David Romano lecturing during a visit to the site of Olympia.
Fig. 4: Andrew Insua operating the total station on a rise above the hippodrome. Fig. 4: Andrew Insua operating the total station on a rise above the hippodrome.
Fig. 5: Allisa Stoimenoff and Thanassis Christeas at work in the walnut grove (Trench F). Fig. 5: Allisa Stoimenoff and Thanassis Christeas at work in the walnut grove (Trench F).
Fig. 6: Anastasia Panagiotopoulou checking in with Christina Gieske and Maya Gupta in Trench H, inside the xenon. Fig. 6: Anastasia Panagiotopoulou checking in with Christina Gieske and Maya Gupta in Trench H, inside the xenon.
Fig. 7: Arvey Basa with the total station on the ash altar. Fig. 7: Arvey Basa with the total station on the ash altar.
Fig. 8: Architects Margaret Jankowsky and Pam Jordan at work in the Cultural Center. Fig. 8: Architects Margaret Jankowsky and Pam Jordan at work in the Cultural Center.
Fig. 9: Reagan Ruedig drawing a block in the east wall of the xenon. Fig. 9: Reagan Ruedig drawing a block in the east wall of the xenon.
Fig. 10: Emily Graff, Sarah Ward, Jared Benton, Allisa Stoimenoff, and Clivia Zois working on their notebooks in the plateia of Ano Karyes. Fig. 10: Emily Graff, Sarah Ward, Jared Benton, Allisa Stoimenoff, and Clivia Zois working on their notebooks in the plateia of Ano Karyes.
Fig. 11: George Davis outside the dining palace in Ano Karyes. Fig. 11: George Davis outside the dining palace in Ano Karyes.
Fig. 12: Mary Voyatzis with Christos Koumoundouros, president of the Syllogos of Ano Karyes, and Kyriakos Karagiannis, former president of the Syllogos of Ano Karyes. Fig. 12: Mary Voyatzis with Christos Koumoundouros, president of the Syllogos of Ano Karyes, and Kyriakos Karagiannis, former president of the Syllogos of Ano Karyes.
Fig. 13: Group photo in front of the dining palace, July 17. Fig. 13: Group photo in front of the dining palace, July 17.
Fig. 14: Ethne Barnes with friend as a herd of goats passes over the ash altar. Fig. 14: Ethne Barnes with friend as a herd of goats passes over the ash altar.
Fig. 15: Team Zeus on the Ash Altar: L-R Dan Diffendale, Arvey Basa, Susan Mentzer, Alexis Belis, Ethne Barnes and Art Rohn. Fig. 15: Team Zeus on the Ash Altar: L-R Dan Diffendale, Arvey Basa, Susan Mentzer, Alexis Belis, Ethne Barnes and Art Rohn.
Fig. 16: Greek workmen Thanassis Christeas, Giannis Markolephas, Giorgos Aglamisis, and Ilias Aivalis taking a break on the steps in front of the stoa. Fig. 16: Greek workmen Thanassis Christeas, Giannis Markolephas, Giorgos Aglamisis, and Ilias Aivalis taking a break on the steps in front of the stoa.
Fig. 17: Jared Benton discussing stratigraphy in Trench G, below the steps. Fig. 17: Jared Benton discussing stratigraphy in Trench G, below the steps.
Fig. 18: Trench Tours! Sarah Ward and Emily Graff explain their work in Trench E. Fig. 18: Trench Tours! Sarah Ward and Emily Graff explain their work in Trench E.
Fig. 19: Architects Pam Jordan, Becky Hughes and Margaret Jankowsky showing their work on the xenon wall. Fig. 19: Architects Pam Jordan, Becky Hughes and Margaret Jankowsky showing their work on the xenon wall.
Fig. 20: Tommy D toting a tray of tasty treats. Fig. 20: Tommy D toting a tray of tasty treats.
Fig. 21: Josh Gieske and Alexis Belis watch the morning sun over the temenos and Trench Y. Fig. 21: Josh Gieske and Alexis Belis watch the morning sun over the temenos and Trench Y.

From June 26 through August 7 a group of researchers continued their investigations of the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion, where work has been underway since 2004.

The team included specialists from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, together with a team from the University of Arizona and in collaboration with the 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities in Tripolis, Dr. Michalis Petropoulos, Ephor. Our synergates is Anastasia Panagiotopoulou of the 5th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Sparta. The excavation continues to be made possible through the support and generosity of individual, foundation and Greek-American support from the United States and is run under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The financial support and generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas Karabots of Fort Washington, Pennsylvania continues to be of importance to the project. The team that numbered up to 47 students and staff stayed in village accommodations in Ano Karyes and in nearby Kastanochori. The project appreciates the cordial and helpful assistance offered to all members of the team by the Syllogos of Ano Karyes, Christos Koumoundouros, President.

Four local workmen were hired to clear the site of brush and high grass and also served as workmen for the trenches that were dug in the lower and upper areas of the Sanctuary of Zeus. A representative of the Greek Archaeological Service, Ms. Alexandra Sarandopoulou from the 39th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities was present for the season and we thank her for her assistance and good will. Mr. Vassilis Papadopoulos, an archaeologist from the 39th Ephoreia opened two trenches near the area of the seats in the lower sanctuary and one trench in the area of the temenos near the ash altar.

Our work was divided into several parts that included geological survey, geophysical survey, topographical and architectural survey, architectural documentation, historical survey, landscape studies and excavation. Dr. George Davis of the University of Arizona and a small team continued his geological survey of the area immediately surrounding the southern peak of Mt. Lykaion, further defining the structural geology of the region. Dr. Apostolos Sarris of the Institute of Mediterranean Research at FORTH in Rethymnon, together with a team of six, undertook geophysical remote sensing in a number of areas of the site in order to assist in identifying attractive sites for study and excavation. Two topographical survey teams, using electronic total stations, continued the work of documenting the location of every above ground and visible block on the site. A team of six architecture students continued the work of documenting, by means of a series of hand drawings, every significant architectural block, working together with the topographical survey team to create the first actual-state drawing of the buildings and monuments of the sanctuary. The architects, largely supported by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, specifically worked on documenting two different structures at the site, the ca. 40 m long series of steps or seats to the north of the stoa and the east wall of the adjacent ‘xenon‘ building. The architectural renderings of the blocks at the site now number over 2200. Dr. Yanis Pikoulas of the University of Thessaly, together with a group of three students, continued his historical study of the area of Mt. Lykaion, identifying ancient roads and towns in the region. Mr. Mark Davison, of the University of Oregon, continued his cultural landscape study of the area of the Sanctuary of Zeus and the ways in which a cultural database will be presented and might be extended to include a larger area of land for the proposed national archaeological park. There continues to be good interest in the idea of the archaeological park that would protect and unify an area of nearly 300 square kilometers of land in and around Mt. Lykaion.

Expropriation of land was undertaken since the summer season of 2006 and as a result we were able to excavate in the area of the altar and the temenos at the southern summit of the mountain as well as in several areas in the lower sanctuary to the south of the hippodrome. We opened trenches in six different areas of the site; at the altar of Zeus, in the temenos, in the ‘xenon,’ in the area of the seats (or steps), at the front of the stoa, in the walnut grove below the seats, and on the terrace southwest of the hippodrome. From the altar trench, Z, was recovered, what is identified in preliminary analysis, Early, Middle and Late Helladic pottery suggesting that the altar was in use from the 3rd millennium B.C. Excavating 100 years ago, Kourouniotes reported material from the altar no earlier than the 7th century B.C. The new material creates a vastly different account of the history of the altar and the site. Also found in the altar trench were pottery and objects from the Geometric, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods, including bronze tripods and rings, iron blades, a spit and silver coins. Of considerable interest is what is likely to be a Late Minoan II crystal lentoid seal showing the image of a bull with full frontal face. A considerable amount of bone was recovered from the altar excavation, with analysis underway, but preliminary results indicate large and small animal bones of various kinds, and no human bones. A group of trenches, T-Y, were opened in the area of the temenos, near the altar; the total area of the trenches was 52 square meters. Bedrock was found in these trenches with virtually no other finds. In the lower sanctuary a trench, H, was opened within the area of the ‘xenon’ building. A small portion of the floor of the building was cleared, and evidence for interior wall plaster was recovered from the north wall of the building. A small test trench N was dug outside the northeast corner of the ‘xenon.’ Several trenches, K, L, & M, were dug at the outside northern wall of the stoa, exposing the foundation and a portion of the interior of the building. Three trenches G, I, J, were dug in the area of the seats or steps. An exploratory trench F was dug in the area of the walnut grove to the north of the north end of the steps. Bordering the southwest side of the hippodrome, on a slightly elevated terrace (1.5 m) was dug an exploratory trench, E, which revealed ancient levels.

These trenches yielded amounts of ancient pottery sherds, roof tiles, bronzes, iron as well as coins and other small finds. Ms. Teresa Moreno of the Arizona State Museum continues to be our conservator, this year supported by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. The finds are stored in the nearby Lykosoura Museum.

Team Members

Co-Directors

  • Petropoulos, Dr. Michalis Ephor of Antiquities, ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Co-Directors Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Romano, Dr. David Gilman Field Director, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
    Co-Directors Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project The Parrhasian Heritage Park University of Arizona
  • Voyatzis, Dr. Mary E. Director of Finds, University of Arizona
    Co-Directors Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona

Greek Archaeological Service Representatives

  • Fritzilas, Dr. Stamatis ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Grigorakakis, Grigoris Ph.D. student, ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Karapanagiotou, Dr. Anna ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Panagiotopoulou, Anastasia Curator, εʹ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of Lakonia and Arcadia, εʹ Ephorate, Sparta
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Papadopoulos, Vassilis ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Sarandopoulou, Alexandra ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Architects

  • Jordan, Pam Master's student, Architecture & Historic Preservation, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Hughes, Rebecca Undergraduate student, Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Jankowsky, Margaret Undergraduate student, Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Ruedig, Reagan Master's student, Historic Preservation, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Schmelzer, Bridget Master's student, Architecture, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Cultural Landscape Survey

  • Davison, Mark Principal Investigator, Cultural Landscape Architect, Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
    Cultural Landscape Survey Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Whipp, Danae Master’s student, Landscape Architecture, University of Oregon
    Cultural Landscape Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Excavators

  • Barnes, Dr. Ethne Senior Field Archaeologist, Wichita State University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Belis, Alexis Ph.D. student, Art and Archaeology, Princeton University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Benton, Jared Master’s student, Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Gieske, Christina Ph.D. student, Ancient History, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Gieske, Josh Ph.D. student, Ancient History, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators
  • Graff, Emily Undergraduate student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Gupta, Maya Undergraduate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Linn, Sarah Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • McBride, Kathryn Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Petrakis, Dr. Susan Senior Field Archaeologist, San Francisco State University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Rohn, Dr. Arthur Senior Field Archaeologist, Wichita State University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Stoimenoff, Allisa Master’s student, Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Ward, Sarah Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Zois, Clivia ...
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Museum Staff

  • Hammond, Dr. Leslie Registrar
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Kain, Lois Illustrator
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Moreno, Teresa Conservator
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Operations Support

  • Dimaggio, Thomas Cook
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Specialists

  • Cassios, Dr. Costas Principal Investigator, Landscape Ecology and Evaluation, Parrhasian Heritage Park, National Technical University, Athens
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Davis, Dr. George Principal Investigator, Geological Survey, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Goossen, Randy Undergraduate student, Geology, Pomona College
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Mentzer, Susan Morphological Analysis - Ph.D. student, Anthropology, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Pikoulas, Dr. Yanis Historical Survey, University of Thessaly
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Sarris, Dr. Apostolos Principal Investigator, Geophysical Survey, Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Rethymnon
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Starkovich, Britt Faunal Analysis - Ph.D. student, Anthropology, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona

Topographical Survey

  • Insua, Andrew Assistant Field Director for Topographical Survey, Ph.D. student, Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Amoroso-O’Connor, Diane Ph.D. student, Classics, Bryn Mawr College
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Basa, Arvey Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Cadwalader, Hayden Haverford School
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Diffendale, Dan Research Assistant, Corinth Computer Project
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Moskowitz, Rachel Undergraduate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project