2009

Fig. 1: A beautiful morning at the Lower Sanctuary. Fig. 1: A beautiful morning at the Lower Sanctuary.
Fig. 2: Maya Gupta, Alexis Belis, Arvey Basa and Alex Lessie working in Trench Z at the altar. Fig. 2: Maya Gupta, Alexis Belis, Arvey Basa and Alex Lessie working in Trench Z at the altar.
Fig. 3: Dan Diffendale explains the progress made at Trench Z. Fig. 3: Dan Diffendale explains the progress made at Trench Z.
Fig. 4: Trenches K, L, M, and O at the Stoa. Fig. 4: Trenches K, L, M, and O at the Stoa.
Fig. 5: Gabriel Burkett, Emily Graff, Solveig Lawrenz, and a workman at work in Trench N. Fig. 5: Gabriel Burkett, Emily Graff, Solveig Lawrenz, and a workman at work in Trench N.
Fig. 6: Emily Kleinkauf, Teresa Moreno, Leslie Hammond, Sarah Linn, and Michael Tseng washing pottery. Fig. 6: Emily Kleinkauf, Teresa Moreno, Leslie Hammond, Sarah Linn, and Michael Tseng washing pottery.
Fig. 7: Washing tile outside of the lab. Fig. 7: Washing tile outside of the lab.
Fig. 8: The architecture team at the Fountain House: Erick Katzenstein, Ximena Valle, Jenny Hong, Gabriel Burkett, Sarah Beth McKay and Jess Bayuk. Fig. 8: The architecture team at the Fountain House: Erick Katzenstein, Ximena Valle, Jenny Hong, Gabriel Burkett, Sarah Beth McKay and Jess Bayuk.
Fig. 9: Architects Jenny Hong and Sarah Beth McKay documenting blocks at the Bath House. Fig. 9: Architects Jenny Hong and Sarah Beth McKay documenting blocks at the Bath House.
Fig. 10: Amy Plopper and J.R. Son at Trench R. Fig. 10: Amy Plopper and J.R. Son at Trench R.
Fig. 11: George Davis explains thrusting faults on a hike. Fig. 11: George Davis explains thrusting faults on a hike.
Fig. 12: Our wonderful cooks: Merrily Davis, Nancy Mueller, and Sam McBride. Fig. 12: Our wonderful cooks: Merrily Davis, Nancy Mueller, and Sam McBride.
Fig. 13: Ano Karyes from a distance. Fig. 13: Ano Karyes from a distance.
Fig. 14: Mary Voyatzis explains to the group about the Temple of Apollo at Bassai. Fig. 14: Mary Voyatzis explains to the group about the Temple of Apollo at Bassai.
Fig. 15: Walking back from the Bath House at the Lower Sanctuary. Fig. 15: Walking back from the Bath House at the Lower Sanctuary.
Fig. 16: Studying the fountain at Phygalea. Fig. 16: Studying the fountain at Phygalea.
Fig. 17: Nicky Pasterfield teaches basic Greek phrases to the group. Fig. 17: Nicky Pasterfield teaches basic Greek phrases to the group.
Fig. 18: Enjoying a meal before going to the beach. Fig. 18: Enjoying a meal before going to the beach.
Fig. 19: Relaxing at the Sky Bar. Fig. 19: Relaxing at the Sky Bar.
Fig. 20: Taking a break after hiking to a refuge cave. Fig. 20: Taking a break after hiking to a refuge cave.
Fig. 21: Full moon from the Ash Altar at midnight. Fig. 21: Full moon from the Ash Altar at midnight.

From June 1 through July 13 a group of researchers continued their investigations of the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion, where work has been underway since 2004.

The team included specialists from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, together with a team from the University of Arizona, and in collaboration with the 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis. The co-directors of the project are Dr. Michalis Petropoulos, Ephor of Antiquities of the 39th Ephoreia, Dr. Mary E. Voyatzis of the University of Arizona and Dr. David Gilman Romano of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Our synergates is Anastasia Panagiotopoulou, Director of the Archaeological Institute for Peloponnesian Studies in Tripolis. The work was carried out under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and was made possible through the generosity of individuals, foundations and Greek-American supporters from the United States. The financial support of Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas Karabots of Fort Washington, Pennsylvania continues to be of major importance to the project. The Greek-American team that numbered up to 45 students and staff over the course of the summer, stayed in village accommodations in Ano Karyes and in nearby Kastanochoroi. The Stavros Niarchos Foundation through the University of Pennsylvania and The Wallace Foundation through the University of Arizona were responsible for supporting many of the students who came from these two universities. The cordial and helpful assistance given to all members of the project by the Politistikos Syllogos of Ano Karyes, and its president, Mr. Christos Koumoundouros, continues to be greatly appreciated by us all.

Five local workmen cleared the site of brush and high grass, and also served as workmen for the trenches that were dug in the lower area of the Sanctuary of Zeus. Our work was divided into several parts that included a geological survey, topographical and architectural surveys, architectural documentation and scientific stratigraphic excavation.

Dr. George Davis of the University of Arizona and a small team continued the geological survey of the area immediately surrounding the southern peak of Mt. Lykaion, defining the structural geology of the region.

Two topographical survey teams continued the work of documenting the location of every above ground and visible stone block at the site.

A team of five architecture students from the University of Pennsylvania supervised by Ms. Ximena Valle continued the architectural documentation of the blocks at the site by creating a series of hand drawings of every significant architectural block. The architecture students, funded in part by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, worked on the completion of the documentation of the ca. 39 m. long series of steps or seats to the north of the stoa, the documentation of the east wall of the 'xenon’ building, and of the fountain house to the south and west of the 'xenon.’ They also began the study of the bath building to the northeast of the hippodrome.

Ms. Terri Moreno of the Arizona State Museum was our conservator, supported by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. Expropriation of land is underway and includes areas in and around the ash altar and in the temenos on the southern peak of the mountain as well as in the lower sanctuary. Dr. Mary Voyatzis and Dr. David Gilman Romano presented a talk on the subject of the proposed Parrhasian Heritage Park at a meeting on the Tenth Recreation of the Modern Lykaion Games, 2009 at the War Museum in Athens on June 15. Such a park would serve to protect and unify the ancient cities and sanctuaries in the area of Western Arcadia, Southern Elis and Northern Messenia. (See plan back page).

We continued several trenches from 2008 and opened a number of new trenches. At the altar we continued Trench Z, extending the original trench to the north and to the east. Stratigraphic sequences were found indicating first use of the altar in the prehistoric period. Pottery was found from the Late Neolithic, Early Helladic, Middle Helladic and Late Helladic periods. The Mycenaean material is especially well represented, characterized by dozens of Mycenaean kylikes and other small finds. Above this level, the stratigraphy includes Sub-Mycenaean and Dark Age material, as well as Geometric, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic sherds in what appears to be a continuous sequence. Multiple miniature bronze tripods were recovered as well as silver coins, metal objects, and miniature dedications of various kinds. Great quantities of animal bones continue to be unearthed, but no human bones have been found. Trench ZZ was begun approximately 10 m. to the southwest of trench Z in a location that may include a geological fault. Our work at the altar was supported in part by a grant from the Institute of Aegean Prehistory.

In the lower sanctuary, trench G was continued in the area immediately to the north of the seats or steps where a portion of a terracotta water channel was discovered that may relate to the use of the seats in the 4th century B.C. Trench N was continued in 2009 in an area outside the northeast corner of the ‘xenon,’ revealing a long sub-surface open air corridor with carefully cut walls. We cleared more of the 67 m. long stoa building, including the continuation of trenches L, M and O and began trenches CC and DD. In the hippodrome we began three trenches, R, S, and BB.

Following the excavation and survey season, on August 9 David Romano attended and participated in the 10th recreation of the Modern Lykaion Games which were held on the surface of the ancient stadium and Hippodrome.

This text summarizes the work of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project conducted during summer 2009. A full color version of the brochure with Greek and English text, photographs and maps can be downloaded here.

Team Members

Co-Directors

  • Petropoulos, Dr. Michalis Ephor of Antiquities, ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Co-Directors Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Romano, Dr. David Gilman Field Director, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
    Co-Directors Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project The Parrhasian Heritage Park University of Arizona
  • Voyatzis, Dr. Mary E. Director of Finds, University of Arizona
    Co-Directors Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona

Greek Archaeological Service Representatives

  • Fritzilas, Dr. Stamatis ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Grigorakakis, Grigoris Ph.D. student, ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Karapanagiotou, Dr. Anna ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Panagiotopoulou, Anastasia Director, Archaeological Institute of Peloponnesian Studies, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Souchliris, Leonidas ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Architects

  • Valle, Ximena Assistant Field Director for Architectural Studies, Kling Stubbins
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Bayuk, Jess Master's student, Architecture, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Burkett, Gabriel Undergraduate student, Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Hong, Jenny Undergraduate student, Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Katzenstein, Erick Master's student, Architecture, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • McKay, Sarah Beth Undergraduate student, Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Excavators

  • Belis, Alexis Ph.D. student, Art and Archaeology, Princeton University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Chain, Amanda Undergraduate student, Classics & International Relations, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Coco, Emily Undergraduate student, Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Diffendale, Dan Lab Manager, Archaeological Mapping Lab, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Giarelli, Emily Undergraduate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Graff, Emily Logan Simpson Design, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Gupta, Maya Ph.D. student, Philosophy, Yale University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Lawrenz, Solveig Master's student, Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators
  • McBride, Kathryn Master's student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Plopper, Amy Post-Baccalaureate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Son, J.R. Ph.D. student, History, Cornell University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Weiland, Jonathan Post-Baccalaureate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Yares, Karl Undergraduate student, Anthropology, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Zois, Clivia ...
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Museum Staff

  • Hammond, Dr. Leslie Registrar, Ocala, Florida
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Kain, Lois Illustrator, Urbana, Illinois
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Kleinkauf, Emily Undergraduate student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Linn, Sarah Master's student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Moreno, Teresa Conservator, Arizona State Museum
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Pasterfield, Nicola Undergraduate student, Fine Arts, Falmouth School of Arts
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Ragan, Katherine Master's student, Conservation, Buffalo State College
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Operations Support

  • Keating, Tom Assistant Director for Field Operations, University of Arizona
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Davis, Merrily Assistant cook and house manager
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • McBride, Sam Cook
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Mueller, Nancy Assistant cook and house manager
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Specialists

  • Cassios, Dr. Costas Principal Investigator, Landscape Ecology and Evaluation, Parrhasian Heritage Park, National Technical University, Athens
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Davis, Dr. George Principal Investigator, Geological Survey, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Koh, Dr. Andrew Chemical Residue Analysis - University of California, Los Angeles
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Margaritis, Dr. Evi Paleobotany - British School of Archaeology
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Marx, Tracey Dark Age Pottery - Marian University
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Morehouse, Dr. Barbara Consultant, Cultural Landscape Studies, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Nordquist, Dr. Gullog Prehistoric Pottery - Senior Field Archaeologist, University of Uppsala
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Petrakis, Dr. Susan Pottery - Senior Field Archaeologist
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Romano, Dr. Irene Bald Senior Field Archaeologist, American School of Classical Studies at Athens
    Specialists American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Starkovich, Britt Faunal Analysis -Ph.D. student, Anthropology, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona

Technology Manager

  • Tseng, Michael On-site Lab Manager
    Technology Manager Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Topographical Survey

  • Griffith, Philip Ph.D. student, Philosophy, Florida State University
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Basa, Arvey Master's student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Lessie, Alexander Undergraduate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Winnick, Benjamin Undergraduate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project