2010

Fig. 1: The lower sanctuary with brush cleared and trenches open. Fig. 1: The lower sanctuary with brush cleared and trenches open.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 2: Hiking to the sanctuary of Pan. Fig. 2: Hiking to the sanctuary of Pan.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 3: An introductory hike to the altar. Fig. 3: An introductory hike to the altar.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 4: A tour of the bath in the lower sanctuary. Fig. 4: A tour of the bath in the lower sanctuary.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 5: The survey team finishing up for the day. Fig. 5: The survey team finishing up for the day.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 6: George Davis up on the altar. Fig. 6: George Davis up on the altar.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 7: Trench Z during the early stages of excavation. Fig. 7: Trench Z during the early stages of excavation.
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 8: Opening trenches near the Stoa Fig. 8: Opening trenches near the Stoa
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 9 Fig. 9
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 10 Fig. 10
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 11 Fig. 11
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 12 Fig. 12
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 13 Fig. 13
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 14 Fig. 14
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 15 Fig. 15
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 16 Fig. 16
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 17 Fig. 17
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 18 Fig. 18
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 19 Fig. 19
Photo by Eric Fergason
Fig. 20 Fig. 20
Photo by Eric Fergason

Between June 15 and August 3 excavation and survey work continued at the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion, where investigations have been underway since 2004.

The team included specialists and students from several universities, but primarily from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and the University of Arizona, in collaboration with the 39th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis. The co-directors of the project are Dr. Michalis Petropoulos, Ephor of Antiquities of the 39th Ephoreia, Dr. David Gilman Romano of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, and Dr. Mary Voyatzis of the University of Arizona. In addition, Anastasia Panagiotopoulou, Director of the Archaeological Institute of Peloponnesian Studies in Tripolis, has been one of our collaborators from the outset of the project. The work was carried out under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the American team was supported through the continued generosity of individuals, foundations and Greek-American supporters from the United States. The financial support of Mr. and Mrs Nicholas Karabots of Fort Washington, Pennsylvania and Ms. Annette Merle-Smith of Princeton, New Jersey, continue to be instrumental in allowing the project to take place. The Greek-American team, which consisted of up to 55 students and staff over the course of the summer, stayed in village accommodations in Ano Karyes and in nearby Kastanochoroi. The generous and cordial assistance given to all members of the project by the Politistikos Syllogos of Ano Karyes, and its President, Mr. Christos Koumoundouros, continued to make it possible for us to live comfortably in the region and to carry out our work at Mt. Lykaion.

Our 2010 investigations had numerous components including continued scientific excavation, topographical and architectural survey work, geological survey, faunal and floral analyses, chemical residue analyses, architectural documentation, planning for the heritage park, and museum and conservation activities. Two topographical survey teams, one at the summit of the mountain and the other in the lower mountain meadow, assisted with excavation recording. The topographical survey teams also worked closely with the architectural team, which continued to document all of the architectural blocks at the site. The architectural team, comprised of six architectural students, worked on the documentation of the 67 m. long stoa, the 39 m. long series of seats to the north of the stoa, the nearby fountain house, the 'corridor' in front of the 'xenon’ building, and the bath building. One of our architectural students was funded by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation as was our conservator Ms. Terri Moreno of the Arizona State Museum. A team from the 39th Ephoreia cleared a portion of the ancient Agno Fountain, halfway between the lower and the upper levels of the sanctuary.

Excavation from 2009 was continued in several trenches and several new trenches were begun. At the altar we continued Trench Z, extending the trench to the north as well as expanding it to the east in several different areas. Stratigraphic sequences continue to reveal evidence for the earliest activity from the altar, dating from the prehistoric period and including pottery from the Late Neolithic, Early Helladic, Middle Helladic, and the Late Helladic periods, most of it mixed with burnt animal bones. The Mycenaean material includes large numbers of kylikes, deep bowls, stemmed bowls, cups, askoi, human and animal figurines of terracotta and other small finds. Above this level we continue to find Sub-Mycenaean and Dark Age material, and above that, Geometric, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic sherds, in what appears to be a continuous sequence. Bronze tripods, coins, metal objects and miniature dedications were discovered. Trench ZZ, approximately 10 m. to the south of Trench Z was extended toward the northeast. Our work at the altar was supported in part by a grant from the Institute of Aegean Prehistory. Finally, 50 m. below the altar, to the south of the southern summit, we initiated Trench KK where there may have been a roadway or a dromos.

In the lower sanctuary Trench G was continued in the area to the north of the seats. Trench N was extended to the northeast of the ‘xenon’ exposing more of the sub-surface open air corridor. Multiple trenches, DD, EE, FF, L, M, N and O and their extensions in the area of the 67 m. long stoa revealed more of the front and interior foundations of the building as well as the western end. A new trench, GG, was dug in the vicinity of the statue bases to the east of Trench G. Trench JJ was excavated in the fountain house. In the area of the hippodrome we opened Trench HH and found a portion of the surface of the hippodrome floor.

On August 1, the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project hosted a workshop, in the Cultural Center of Megalopolis, at which the proposal for the Parrhasian Heritage Park of the Peloponnesos was presented and discussed. The park would serve to protect and unify the ancient cities and sanctuaries in the area of Western Arcadia, Northern Messenia and Southern Elis. This conference was well attended (200-300 individuals) and was represented by the Tripolis Ephoreia and local and regional government leaders of Greece. Dr. Michalis Petropoulos, Ms. Anastasia Panagiotopoulou, Dr. Mary Voyatzis, Dr. David Gilman Romano, Dr. Costas Cassios, Mr. Mark Davison and Ms. Ximena Valle gave presentations at the event. The audience participated in a lively discussion with the presenters at the end of the event and broad and enthusiastic support was expressed for the establishment of such a park in the region. Finally the project has leased an apotheke in Tripolis for the finds from the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project. We will undertake our study seasons for the next two summers at this site.

This text summarizes the work of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project conducted during summer 2010. A full color version of the brochure with Greek and English text, photographs and maps can be downloaded here.

Team Members

Co-Directors

  • Petropoulos, Dr. Michalis Ephor of Antiquities, ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Co-Directors Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Romano, Dr. David Gilman Field Director, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
    Co-Directors Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project The Parrhasian Heritage Park University of Arizona
  • Voyatzis, Dr. Mary E. Director of Finds, University of Arizona
    Co-Directors Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona

Greek Archaeological Service Representatives

  • Fritzilas, Dr. Stamatis ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Grigorakakis, Grigoris Ph.D. student, ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Karapanagiotou, Dr. Anna ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Panagiotopoulou, Anastasia Director, Archaeological Institute of Peloponnesian Studies, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Souchliris, Leonidas ΛΘ’ Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Tripolis, Arcadia
    Greek Archaeological Service Representatives Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Architects

  • Valle, Ximena Assistant Field Director for Architectural Studies, Kling Stubbins
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Burkett, Gabriel Fulbright Fellow - Latvia
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Hong, Jenny Lab Manager, Archaeological Mapping Lab, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Jankowsky, Margaret Master's student, Architecture, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • McKay, Sarah Beth Undergraduate student, Architecture, University of Pennsylvania
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Tarricone, Olivia Architectural Intern, Gardiner Kilcoyne Architects
    Architects Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Excavators

  • Graff, Emily Logan Simpson Design, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Armond, Thea De Post-Baccalaureate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Bauer, Natalia Ph.D. student, Ancient History, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Belis, Alexis Ph.D. candidate, Art and Archaeology, Princeton University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Chain, Amanda Undergraduate student, Classics & International Relations, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Diffendale, Dan Ph.D. student, Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology, University of Michigan
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Dreyfuss, Lauren Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Hodgins, Fran Undergraduate student, History, Colgate University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Kron, Colleen Ph.D. student, Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Laurenz, Solveig Ph.D. student, Classical Archaeology, Freie Universitt
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Mahoney, Dr. Kyle Ph.D. student, Ancient History, University of Pennsylvania
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • McBride, Kathryn ...
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Moser, Claudia Ph.D. student, The Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, Brown University
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Plopper, Amy Master’s student, Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Zois, Clivia ...
    Excavators Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Information Technology

  • Tseng, Michael On-site Lab Manager, Ph.D. student, Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles
    Information Technology Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Lynn, Kieran Database programmer, website designer, Octothorp Studios
    Information Technology Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Museum Staff

  • Hammond, Dr. Leslie Registrar, Ocala, Florida
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Beckmann, Sarah Ph.D. student, Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World, University of Pennsylvania
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Kain, Lois Illustrator, Urbana, Illinois
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Linn, Sarah Ph.D. student, Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World, University of Pennsylvania
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Moreno, Teresa Conservator, Arizona State Museum
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Tubman, Julia N. M. Master’s student, Conservation, Institute of Archaeology, University College London
    Museum Staff Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Operations Support

  • Keating, Tom Assistant Director for Logistics and Planning, University of Arizona
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Lenigk, Reiner Assistant Director for Field Operations
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Davis, Merrily Assistant cook and house manager
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • McBride, Sam Cook
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Tallmon, Nora Assistant cook and house manager
    Operations Support Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project

Specialists

  • Cassios, Dr. Costas Principal Investigator, Landscape Ecology and Evaluation, Parrhasian Heritage Park, National Technical University, Athens
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Davis, Dr. George Principal Investigator, Geological Survey, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Davison, Mark Principal Investigator, Parrhasian Heritage Park, Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
    Specialists Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Fergason, Eric Photographer, Tucson, Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Koh, Dr. Andrew Chemical Residue Analysis - Tufts University
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Margaritis, Dr. Evi Paleobotany - British School of Archaeology
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Marx, Tracey Dark Age Pottery - Marian University
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Mentzer, Susan Micromorphological Analysis - Ph.D. candidate, Anthropology, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Morehouse, Dr. Barbara Consultant, Cultural Landscape Studies, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Nordquist, Dr. Gullog Middle Helladic Pottery, University of Uppsala
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Petrakis, Dr. Susan Final Neolithic Pottery, Albuquerque, New Mexico
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Romano, Dr. Irene Bald Sculpture and Statue Bases, American School of Classical Studies at Athens
    Specialists American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Rotroff, Dr. Susan Hellenistic Pottery, Washington University St. Louis
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Stapp, Dr. Nicholas L. Director, Geospatial Research, Archaeological Mapping Lab, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania
    Specialists Archaeological Mapping Lab Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Starkovich, Britt Faunal Analysis - Ph.D. candidate, Anthropology, University of Arizona
    Specialists Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona

Topographical Survey

  • Weiland, Jonathan Assistant Director for Topographical Survey, Master’s student, Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Dwyer, Justin Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Fresquez, Mario Master’s student, Classics, University of Arizona
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Lessie, Alexander Ph.D. student, Classics, University of California, Los Angeles
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Milonas, Genevieve Master’s student, Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project University of Arizona
  • Nabel, Jacob Post-Baccalaureate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Pihokker, Matt Post-Baccalaureate student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project
  • Wilson, Kate Ph.D. student, Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania
    Topographical Survey Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey Project